When we first created Dexmedetomidine.com, there was little published about dexmedetomidine. We created article summaries for the references in the first few years of this site. As of summer 2008, there are 890 articles using dexmedetomidine as a search term. We recommend you visit PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez) to search for your specific interest. However, below is a bibliography of 569 of the important studies regarding dexmedetomidine, listed by year. You can still go to our previous section with summaries.


Dexmedetomidine References:

2008 - 1-70
2007 - 71-134
2006 - 135-201
2005 - 202-252
2004 - 253-294
2003 - 295-318
2002 - 319-341
2001 - 342-366
2000 - 367-387
1999 - 388-402
1998 - 403-413
1997 - 414-442
1996 - 443-457
1995 - 458-473
1994 - 474-490
1993 - 491-507
1992 - 508-530
1991 - 531-554
1988 - 1990 - 555-569

1. Akada S, Takeda S, Yoshida Y, Nakazato K, Mori M, Hongo T, Tanaka K, Sakamoto A: The efficacy of dexmedetomidine in patients with noninvasive ventilation: a preliminary study. Anesth Analg 2008; 107: 167-70

2. Al-Metwalli RR, Mowafi HA, Ismail SA, Siddiqui AK, Al-Ghamdi AM, Shafi MA, El-Saleh AR: Effect of intra-articular dexmedetomidine on postoperative analgesia after arthroscopic knee surgery. Br J Anaesth 2008

3. Alvaides RK, Neto FJ, Aguiar AJ, Campagnol D, Steagall PV: Sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of acepromazine or atropine given before dexmedetomidine in dogs. Vet Rec 2008; 162: 852-6

4. Anschel DJ, Aherne A, Soto RG, Carrion W, Hoegerl C, Nori P, Seidman PA: Successful intraoperative spinal cord monitoring during scoliosis surgery using a total intravenous anesthetic regimen including dexmedetomidine. J Clin Neurophysiol 2008; 25: 56-61

5. Arpino PA, Kalafatas K, Thompson BT: Feasibility of dexmedetomidine in facilitating extubation in the intensive care unit. J Clin Pharm Ther 2008; 33: 25-30

6. Barletta JF, Devlin JW: Sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam in mechanically ventilated patients. Jama 2008; 299: 1541-2; author reply 1542

7. Begec Z, Toprak HI, Demirbilek S, Erdil F, Onal D, Ersoy MO: Dexmedetomidine blunts acute hyperdynamic responses to electroconvulsive therapy without altering seizure duration. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52: 302-6

8. Biccard BM, Goga S, de Beurs J: Dexmedetomidine and cardiac protection for non-cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Anaesthesia 2008; 63: 4-14

9. Buck ML, Willson DF: Use of dexmedetomidine in the pediatric intensive care unit. Pharmacotherapy 2008; 28: 51-7

10. Carroll CL, Krieger D, Campbell M, Fisher DG, Comeau LL, Zucker AR: Use of dexmedetomidine for sedation of children hospitalized in the intensive care unit. J Hosp Med 2008; 3: 142-7

11. Chrysostomou C, Schmitt CG: Dexmedetomidine: sedation, analgesia and beyond. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2008; 4: 619-27

12. Cosar M, Eser O, Fidan H, Sahin O, Buyukbas S, Ela Y, Yagmurca M, Ozen OA: The neuroprotective effect of dexmedetomidine in the hippocampus of rabbits after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Surg Neurol 2008

13. Dahmani S, Paris A, Jannier V, Hein L, Rouelle D, Scholz J, Gressens P, Mantz J: Dexmedetomidine increases hippocampal phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1 and 2 content by an alpha 2-adrenoceptor-independent mechanism: evidence for the involvement of imidazoline I1 receptors. Anesthesiology 2008; 108: 457-66

14. Dotson B, Peeters MJ: Sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam in mechanically ventilated patients. Jama 2008; 299: 1540; author reply 1542

15. Drummond JC, Dao AV, Roth DM, Cheng CR, Atwater BI, Minokadeh A, Pasco LC, Patel PM: Effect of dexmedetomidine on cerebral blood flow velocity, cerebral metabolic rate, and carbon dioxide response in normal humans. Anesthesiology 2008; 108: 225-32

16. Easley RB, Tobias JD: Pro: dexmedetomidine should be used for infants and children undergoing cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2008; 22: 147-51

17. Elias WJ, Durieux ME, Huss D, Frysinger RC: Dexmedetomidine and arousal affect subthalamic neurons. Mov Disord 2008

18. Elvan EG, Oc B, Uzun S, Karabulut E, Coskun F, Aypar U: Dexmedetomidine and postoperative shivering in patients undergoing elective abdominal hysterectomy. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008; 25: 357-64

19. Erdurmus M, Aydin B, Usta B, Yagci R, Gozdemir M, Totan Y: Patient comfort and surgeon satisfaction during cataract surgery using topical anesthesia with or without dexmedetomidine sedation. Eur J Ophthalmol 2008; 18: 361-7

20. Erkonen G, Lamb F, Tobias JD: High-dose Dexmedetomidine-induced Hypertension in a Child with Traumatic Brain Injury. Neurocrit Care 2008

21. Eser O, Fidan H, Sahin O, Cosar M, Yaman M, Mollaoglu H, Songur A, Buyukbas S: The influence of dexmedetomidine on ischemic rat hippocampus. Brain Res 2008; 1218C: 250-256

22. Franken ND, van Oostrom H, Stienen PJ, Doornenbal A, Hellebrekers LJ: Evaluation of analgesic and sedative effects of continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine by measuring somatosensory- and auditory-evoked potentials in the rat. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008

23. Goksu S, Arik H, Demiryurek S, Mumbuc S, Oner U, Demiryurek AT: Effects of dexmedetomidine infusion in patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery under local anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008; 25: 22-8

24. Hammer GB: Con: dexmedetomidine should not be used for infants and children during cardiac surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2008; 22: 152-4

25. Hammer GB, Drover DR, Cao H, Jackson E, Williams GD, Ramamoorthy C, Van Hare GF, Niksch A, Dubin AM: The effects of dexmedetomidine on cardiac electrophysiology in children. Anesth Analg 2008; 106: 79-83, table of contents

26. Hanamoto H, Tachibana K, Kinouchi K, Kagawa K: Postoperative management of cleft lip repair using dexmedetomidine in a child with bidirectional superior cavopulmonary shunt. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18: 350-2

27. Honkavaara JM, Raekallio MR, Kuusela EK, Hyvarinen EA, Vainio OM: The effects of L-659,066, a peripheral alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, on dexmedetomidine-induced sedation and bradycardia in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008

28. Huupponen E, Maksimow A, Lapinlampi P, Sarkela M, Saastamoinen A, Snapir A, Scheinin H, Scheinin M, Merilainen P, Himanen SL, Jaaskelainen S: Electroencephalogram spindle activity during dexmedetomidine sedation and physiological sleep. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52: 289-94

29. Ishii H, Kohno T, Yamakura T, Ikoma M, Baba H: Action of dexmedetomidine on the substantia gelatinosa neurons of the rat spinal cord. Eur J Neurosci 2008; 27: 3182-90

30. Kadoi Y, Saito S, Kawauchi C, Hinohara H, Kunimoto F: Comparative effects of propofol vs dexmedetomidine on cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity in patients with septic shock. Br J Anaesth 2008; 100: 224-9

31. Kaygusuz K, Gokce G, Gursoy S, Ayan S, Mimaroglu C, Gultekin Y: A comparison of sedation with dexmedetomidine or propofol during shockwave lithotripsy: a randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg 2008; 106: 114-9, table of contents

32. Konakci S, Adanir T, Yilmaz G, Rezanko T: The efficacy and neurotoxicity of dexmedetomidine administered via the epidural route. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008; 25: 403-9

33. Kumagai M, Horiguchi T, Nishikawa T, Masaki Y, Tobe Y: Intravenous dexmedetomidine decreases lung permeability induced by intracranial hypertension in rats. Anesth Analg 2008; 107: 643-7

34. Kunisawa T, Suzuki A, Takahata O, Iwasaki H: High dose of dexmedetomidine was useful for general anesthesia and post-operative analgesia in a patient with postpolio syndrome. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52: 864-5

35. Kurnik D, Muszkat M, Sofowora GG, Friedman EA, Dupont WD, Scheinin M, Wood AJ, Stein CM: Ethnic and genetic determinants of cardiovascular response to the selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine. Hypertension 2008; 51: 406-11

36. Lam SW, Alexander E: Dexmedetomidine use in critical care. AACN Adv Crit Care 2008; 19: 113-20

37. Lami RO, Pereira AC: Transmucosal dexmedetomidine for computed tomography sedation. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18: 349-78

38. Li B, Du T, Li H, Gu L, Zhang H, Huang J, Hertz L, Peng L: Signalling pathways for transactivation by dexmedetomidine of epidermal growth factor receptors in astrocytes and its paracrine effect on neurons. Br J Pharmacol 2008; 154: 191-203

39. Lin GY, Robben JH, Murrell JC, Aspegren J, McKusick BC, Hellebrekers LJ: Dexmedetomidine constant rate infusion for 24 hours during and after propofol or isoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008; 35: 141-53

40. Mason KP, Zgleszewski SE, Prescilla R, Fontaine PJ, Zurakowski D: Hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine sedation for CT imaging studies. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18: 393-402

41. Mason KP, Zurakowski D, Zgleszewski SE, Robson CD, Carrier M, Hickey PR, Dinardo JA: High dose dexmedetomidine as the sole sedative for pediatric MRI. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18: 403-11

42. Mester R, Easley RB, Brady KM, Chilson K, Tobias JD: Monitored anesthesia care with a combination of ketamine and dexmedetomidine during cardiac catheterization. Am J Ther 2008; 15: 24-30

43. Mowafi HA, Aldossary N, Ismail SA, Alqahtani J: Effect of dexmedetomidine premedication on the intraocular pressure changes after succinylcholine and intubation. Br J Anaesth 2008; 100: 485-9

44. Muller S, Borowics SM, Fortis EA, Stefani LC, Soares G, Maguilnik I, Breyer HP, Hidalgo MP, Caumo W: Clinical efficacy of dexmedetomidine alone is less than propofol for conscious sedation during ERCP. Gastrointest Endosc 2008;
67: 651-9

45. Nathan AT, Marino BS, Hanna B, Nicolson SC: Novel use of dexmedetomidine in a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18: 782-4

46. Phan H, Nahata MC: Clinical uses of dexmedetomidine in pediatric patients. Paediatr Drugs 2008; 10: 49-69

47. Potts AL, Warman GR, Anderson BJ: Dexmedetomidine disposition in children: a population analysis. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18: 722-30

48. Richa F, Yazigi A, Sleilaty G, Yazbeck P: Comparison between dexmedetomidine and remifentanil for controlled hypotension during tympanoplasty. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008; 25: 369-74

49. Shah S, Sangari T, Qasim M, Martin T: Severe hypertension and bradycardia after dexmedetomidine for radiology sedation in a patient with acute transverse myelitis. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18: 681-2

50. Shukry M, Kalarickal P: Cost of dexmedetomidine in MRI. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18: 562; author reply 562

51. Sichrovsky TC, Mittal S, Steinberg JS: Dexmedetomidine sedation leading to refractory cardiogenic shock. Anesth Analg 2008; 106: 1784-6

52. Slingsby LS, Taylor PM: Thermal antinociception after dexmedetomidine administration in cats: a dose-finding study. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2008; 31: 135-42

53. Stamenkovic D, Hassid M: Sedation with dexmedetomidine for vocal fold injection. N Z Med J 2008; 121: 71-3

54. Stricker P, Fiadjoe JE, McGinnis S: Intubation of an infant with Pierre Robin sequence under dexmedetomidine sedation using the Shikani Optical Stylet. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2008; 52: 866-7

55. Taghinia AH, Shapiro FE, Slavin SA: Dexmedetomidine in aesthetic facial surgery: improving anesthetic safety and efficacy. Plast Reconstr Surg 2008; 121: 269-76

56. Takamatsu I, Iwase A, Ozaki M, Kazama T, Wada K, Sekiguchi M: Dexmedetomidine reduces long-term potentiation in mouse hippocampus. Anesthesiology 2008; 108: 94-102

57. Tufanogullari B, White PF, Peixoto MP, Kianpour D, Lacour T, Griffin J, Skrivanek G, Macaluso A, Shah M, Provost DA: Dexmedetomidine infusion during laparoscopic bariatric surgery: the effect on recovery outcome variables. Anesth Analg 2008; 106: 1741-8

58. Tung A, Herrera S, Fornal CA, Jacobs BL: The effect of prolonged anesthesia with isoflurane, propofol, dexmedetomidine, or ketamine on neural cell proliferation in the adult rat. Anesth Analg 2008; 106: 1772-7

59. Turan G, Ozgultekin A, Turan C, Dincer E, Yuksel G: Advantageous effects of dexmedetomidine on haemodynamic and recovery responses during extubation for intracranial surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008: 1-5

60. Uilenreef JJ, Murrell JC, McKusick BC, Hellebrekers LJ: Dexmedetomidine continuous rate infusion during isoflurane anaesthesia in canine surgical patients. Vet Anaesth Analg 2008; 35: 1-12

61. Uyar AS, Yagmurdur H, Fidan Y, Topkaya C, Basar H: Dexmedetomidine attenuates the hemodynamic and neuroendocrinal responses to skull-pin head-holder application during craniotomy. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2008; 20: 174-9

62. Uzumcugil F, Canbay O, Celebi N, Karagoz AH, Ozgen S: Comparison of dexmedetomidine-propofol vs. fentanyl-propofol for laryngeal mask insertion. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008; 25: 675-80

63. Vilo S, Rautiainen P, Kaisti K, Aantaa R, Scheinin M, Manner T, Olkkola KT: Pharmacokinetics of intravenous dexmedetomidine in children under 11 yr of age. Br J Anaesth 2008; 100: 697-700

64. Weber MD, Thammasitboon S, Rosen DA: Acute discontinuation syndrome from dexmedetomidine after protracted use in a pediatric patient. Paediatr Anaesth 2008; 18: 87-8

65. Wunsch H, Meltzer JS: Sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam in mechanically ventilated patients. Jama 2008; 299: 1540-1; author reply 1542

66. Yamakage M, Iwasaki S, Satoh JI, Namiki A: Inhibitory effects of the alpha-2 adrenergic agonists clonidine and dexmedetomidine on enhanced airway tone in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008; 25: 67-71

67. Yavascaoglu B, Kaya FN, Baykara M, Bozkurt M, Korkmaz S: A comparison of esmolol and dexmedetomidine for attenuation of intraocular pressure and haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008; 25: 517-9

68. Yoshitomi T, Kohjitani A, Maeda S, Higuchi H, Shimada M, Miyawaki T: Dexmedetomidine enhances the local anesthetic action of lidocaine via an alpha-2A adrenoceptor. Anesth Analg 2008; 107: 96-101

69. Yuen VM, Hui TW, Irwin MG, Yuen MK: A comparison of intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral midazolam for premedication in pediatric anesthesia: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg 2008; 106: 1715-21

70. Zeyneloglu P, Pirat A, Candan S, Kuyumcu S, Tekin I, Arslan G: Dexmedetomidine causes prolonged recovery when compared with midazolam/fentanyl combination in outpatient shock wave lithotripsy. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2008: 1-7

71. Abdelmalak B, Makary L, Hoban J, Doyle DJ: Dexmedetomidine as sole sedative for awake intubation in management of the critical airway. J Clin Anesth 2007; 19: 370-3

72. Ayoglu H, Altunkaya H, Ozer Y, Yapakci O, Cukdar G, Ozkocak I: Does dexmedetomidine reduce the injection pain due to propofol and rocuronium? Eur J Anaesthesiol 2007; 24: 541-5

73. Ayoglu H, Altunkaya H, Ozer Y, Yapakci O, Ozkocak I, Oz O, Alpay A, Ugurbas SH: Dexmedetomidine sedation during cataract surgery under regional anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99: 448

74. Bakhamees HS, El-Halafawy YM, El-Kerdawy HM, Gouda NM, Altemyatt S: Effects of dexmedetomidine in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass. Middle East J Anesthesiol 2007; 19: 537-51

75. Bergese SD, Khabiri B, Roberts WD, Howie MB, McSweeney TD, Gerhardt MA: Dexmedetomidine for conscious sedation in difficult awake fiberoptic intubation cases. J Clin Anesth 2007; 19: 141-4

76. Blaine Easley R, Brady KM, Tobias JD: Dexmedetomidine for the treatment of postanesthesia shivering in children. Paediatr Anaesth 2007; 17: 341-6

77. Bulow NM, Barbosa NV, Rocha JB: Opioid consumption in total intravenous anesthesia is reduced with dexmedetomidine: a comparative study with remifentanil in gynecologic videolaparoscopic surgery. J Clin Anesth 2007; 19: 280-5

78. Campagnol D, Teixeira Neto FJ, Giordano T, Ferreira TH, Monteiro ER: Effects of epidural administration of dexmedetomidine on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2007; 68: 1308-18

79. Cheung CW, Ying CL, Chiu WK, Wong GT, Ng KF, Irwin MG: A comparison of dexmedetomidine and midazolam for sedation in third molar surgery. Anaesthesia 2007; 62: 1132-8

80. Coskuner I, Tekin M, Kati I, Yagmur C, Elcicek K: Effects of dexmedetomidine on the duration of anaesthesia and wakefulness in bupivacaine epidural block. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2007; 24: 535-40

81. Demiraran Y, Korkut E, Tamer A, Yorulmaz I, Kocaman B, Sezen G, Akcan Y: The comparison of dexmedetomidine and midazolam used for sedation of patients during upper endoscopy: A prospective, randomized study. Can J Gastroenterol 2007; 21: 25-9

82. Deutsch E, Tobias JD: Hemodynamic and respiratory changes following dexmedetomidine administration during general anesthesia: sevoflurane vs desflurane. Paediatr Anaesth 2007; 17: 438-44

83. Dholakia C, Beverstein G, Garren M, Nemergut C, Boncyk J, Gould JC: The impact of perioperative dexmedetomidine infusion on postoperative narcotic use and duration of stay after laparoscopic bariatric surgery. J Gastrointest Surg 2007; 11: 1556-9

84. Diaz SM, Rodarte A, Foley J, Capparelli EV: Pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine in postsurgical pediatric intensive care unit patients: preliminary study. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2007; 8: 419-24

85. Durmus M, But AK, Dogan Z, Yucel A, Miman MC, Ersoy MO: Effect of dexmedetomidine on bleeding during tympanoplasty or septorhinoplasty. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2007; 24: 447-53

86. Feld J, Hoffman WE, Paisansathan C, Park H, Ananda RC: Autonomic activity during dexmedetomidine or fentanyl infusion with desflurane anesthesia. J Clin Anesth 2007; 19: 30-6

87. Finkel JC, Quezado ZM: Hypothermia-induced bradycardia in a neonate receiving dexmedetomidine. J Clin Anesth 2007; 19: 290-2

88. Firat Y, Kizilay A, Akarcay M, Yucel A, But K, Yologlu S: The effect of dexmedetomidine on middle ear pressure. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007; 137: 218-23

89. Firat Y, Selimoglu E: Dexmedetomidine: a novel anesthetic agent for middle ear surgery. Recent Patents CNS Drug Discov 2007; 2: 151-4

90. Gerlach AT, Dasta JF: Dexmedetomidine: an updated review. Ann Pharmacother 2007; 41: 245-52

91. Girgin NK, Iscimen R, Gurbet A, Kahveci F, Kutlay O: Dexmedetomidine sedation for the treatment of tetanus in the intensive care unit. Br J Anaesth 2007; 99: 599-600

92. Goddeau RP, Jr., Silverman SB, Sims JR: Dexmedetomidine for the treatment of paroxysmal autonomic instability with dystonia. Neurocrit Care 2007; 7: 217-20

93. Gomez-Vazquez ME, Hernandez-Salazar E, Hernandez-Jimenez A, Perez-Sanchez A, Zepeda-Lopez VA, Salazar-Paramo M: Clinical analgesic efficacy and side effects of dexmedetomidine in the early postoperative period after arthroscopic knee surgery. J Clin Anesth 2007; 19: 576-82

94. Granholm M, McKusick BC, Westerholm FC, Aspegren JC: Evaluation of the clinical efficacy and safety of intramuscular and intravenous doses of dexmedetomidine and medetomidine in dogs and their reversal with atipamezole. Vet Rec 2007; 160: 891-7

95. Guneli E, Karabay Yavasoglu NU, Apaydin S, Uyar M: Analysis of the antinociceptive effect of systemic administration of tramadol and dexmedetomidine combination on rat models of acute and neuropathic pain. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2007; 88: 9-17

96. Heard CM, Joshi P, Johnson K: Dexmedetomidine for pediatric MRI sedation: a review of a series of cases. Paediatr Anaesth 2007; 17: 888-92

97. Kakinohana M, Oshiro M, Saikawa S, Nakamura S, Higa T, Davison KJ, Marsala M, Sugahara K: Intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine can prevent the degeneration of spinal ventral neurons induced by intrathecal morphine after a noninjurious interval of spinal cord ischemia in rats. Anesth Analg 2007; 105: 1086-93, table of contents

98. Kalyanaraman M, Costello JL, Starr JP: Use of dexmedetomidine in patients with trisomy 21 after cardiac surgery. Pediatr Cardiol 2007; 28: 396-9

99. Karadas B, Kaya T, Gulturk S, Parlak A, Gursoy S, Cetin A, Bagcivan I: Additive interaction of intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine and topical nimesulide, celecoxib, and DFU for antinociception. Eur J Pharmacol 2007; 556: 62-8

100. Kastner SB, Ohlerth S, Pospischil A, Boller J, Huhtinen MK: Dexmedetomidine-induced pulmonary alterations in sheep. Res Vet Sci 2007; 83: 217-26

101. Lee JI, Su F, Shi H, Zuppa AF: Sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantitation of dexmedetomidine in pediatric plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2007; 852: 195-201

102. Lee YY, Wong SM, Hung CT: Dexmedetomidine infusion as a supplement to isoflurane anaesthesia for vitreoretinal surgery. Br J Anaesth 2007; 98: 477-83

103. MacLaren R, Forrest LK, Kiser TH: Adjunctive dexmedetomidine therapy in the intensive care unit: a retrospective assessment of impact on sedative and analgesic requirements, levels of sedation and analgesia, and ventilatory and hemodynamic parameters. Pharmacotherapy 2007; 27: 351-9

104. Mahmoud M, Sadhasivam S, Sestokas AK, Samuels P, McAuliffe J: Loss of transcranial electric motor evoked potentials during pediatric spine surgery with dexmedetomidine. Anesthesiology 2007; 106: 393-6

105. Maksimow A, Snapir A, Sarkela M, Kentala E, Koskenvuo J, Posti J, Jaaskelainen SK, Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki S, Scheinin M, Scheinin H: Assessing the depth of dexmedetomidine-induced sedation with electroencephalogram (EEG)-based spectral entropy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2007; 51: 22-30

106. Marangoni MA, Hausch A, Vianna PT, Braz JR, Viero RM, Castiglia YM: Renal function and histology after acute hemorrhage in rats under dexmedetomidine action. Acta Cir Bras 2007; 22: 291-8

107. Memis D, Hekimoglu S, Vatan I, Yandim T, Yuksel M, Sut N: Effects of midazolam and dexmedetomidine on inflammatory responses and gastric intramucosal pH to sepsis, in critically ill patients. Br J Anaesth 2007; 98: 550-2

108. Munro HM, Tirotta CF, Felix DE, Lagueruela RG, Madril DR, Zahn EM, Nykanen DG: Initial experience with dexmedetomidine for diagnostic and interventional cardiac catheterization in children. Paediatr Anaesth 2007; 17: 109-12

109. Narimatsu E, Niiya T, Kawamata M, Namiki A: Lack in effects of therapeutic concentrations of dexmedetomidine and clonidine on the neuromuscular blocking action of rocuronium in isolated rat diaphragms. Anesth Analg 2007; 104: 1116-20, tables of contents

110. Nunes S, Berg L, Raittinen LP, Ahonen H, Laranne J, Lindgren L, Parviainen I, Ruokonen E, Tenhunen J: Deep sedation with dexmedetomidine in a porcine model does not compromise the viability of free microvascular flap as depicted by microdialysis and tissue oxygen tension. Anesth Analg 2007; 105: 666-72

111. Oda Y, Toriyama S, Tanaka K, Matsuura T, Hamaoka N, Morino M, Asada A: The effect of dexmedetomidine on electrocorticography in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy under sevoflurane anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2007; 105: 1272-7, table of contents

112. Okada H, Kurita T, Mochizuki T, Morita K, Sato S: The cardioprotective effect of dexmedetomidine on global ischaemia in isolated rat hearts. Resuscitation 2007; 74: 538-45

113. Olutoye O, Kim T, Giannoni C, Stayer S: Dexmedetomidine as an analgesic for pediatric tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. Paediatr Anaesth 2007; 17: 1007-8

114. Pandharipande PP, Pun BT, Herr DL, Maze M, Girard TD, Miller RR, Shintani AK, Thompson JL, Jackson JC, Deppen SA, Stiles RA, Dittus RS, Bernard GR, Ely EW: Effect of sedation with dexmedetomidine vs lorazepam on acute brain dysfunction in mechanically ventilated patients: the MENDS randomized controlled trial. Jama 2007; 298: 2644-53

115. Phillips WJ, Gadiraju S, Dickey S, Galli R, Lerant AA: Dexmedetomidine relieves pain associated with acute sickle cell crisis. J Pain Symptom Manage 2007; 34: 346-9

116. Richa F, Yazigi A: Effect of dexmedetomidine on blood pressure and bleeding in maxillo-facial surgery. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2007; 24: 985-6

117. Schmidt AP, Valinetti EA, Bandeira D, Bertacchi MF, Simoes CM, Auler JO, Jr.: Effects of preanesthetic administration of midazolam, clonidine, or dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain and anxiety in children. Paediatr Anaesth 2007; 17: 667-74

118. Seybold JL, Ramamurthi RJ, Hammer GB: The use of dexmedetomidine during laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and tracheal extubation following tracheal reconstruction. Paediatr Anaesth 2007; 17: 1212-4

119. Shah AN, Koneru J, Nicoara A, Goldfeder LB, Thomas K, Ehlert FA: Dexmedetomidine related cardiac arrest in a patient with permanent pacemaker; a cautionary tale. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 2007; 30: 1158-60

120. Shirasaka T, Kannan H, Takasaki M: Activation of a G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+ current and suppression of Ih contribute to dexmedetomidine-induced inhibition of rat hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons. Anesthesiology 2007; 107: 605-15

121. Shirasaka T, Qiu DL, Kannan H, Takasaki M: The effects of centrally administered dexmedetomidine on cardiovascular and sympathetic function in conscious rats. Anesth Analg 2007; 105: 1722-8, table of contents

122. Shukry M, Kennedy K: Dexmedetomidine as a total intravenous anesthetic in infants. Paediatr Anaesth 2007; 17: 581-3

123. Souter MJ, Rozet I, Ojemann JG, Souter KJ, Holmes MD, Lee L, Lam AM: Dexmedetomidine sedation during awake craniotomy for seizure resection: effects on electrocorticography. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2007; 19: 38-44

124. Stamenkovic DM, Hassid M: Innovative uses of dexmedetomidine. J Clin Anesth 2007; 19: 644-5

125. Sulemanji DS, Donmez A, Aldemir D, Sezgin A, Turkoglu S: Dexmedetomidine during coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: is it neuroprotective?--A preliminary study. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2007; 51: 1093-8

126. Szumita PM, Baroletti SA, Anger KE, Wechsler ME: Sedation and analgesia in the intensive care unit: evaluating the role of dexmedetomidine. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2007; 64: 37-44

127. Takizuka A, Minami K, Uezono Y, Horishita T, Yokoyama T, Shiraishi M, Sakurai T, Shigematsu A, Ueta Y: Dexmedetomidine inhibits muscarinic type 3 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes and muscarine-induced intracellular Ca2+ elevation in cultured rat dorsal root ganglia cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2007; 375: 293-301

128. Talke P, Stapelfeldt C, Garcia P: Dexmedetomidine does not reduce epileptiform discharges in adults with epilepsy. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2007; 19: 195-9

129. Tobias JD: Dexmedetomidine: applications in pediatric critical care and pediatric anesthesiology. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2007; 8: 115-31

130. Tsifansky MD, Schmitt CG, Munoz RA: Dexmedetomidine: do we know enough? Pediatr Crit Care Med 2007; 8: 492-3

131. Ugur F, Gulcu N, Boyaci A: Intrathecal infusion therapy with dexmedetomidine-supplemented morphine in cancer pain. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2007; 51: 388

132. Yamamoto Y, Kawaguchi M, Kakimoto M, Inoue S, Furuya H: The effects of dexmedetomidine on myogenic motor evoked potentials in rabbits. Anesth Analg 2007; 104: 1488-92, table of contents

133. Yildiz O, Ulusoy HB, Seyrek M, Gul H, Yildirim V: Dexmedetomidine produces dual alpha2-adrenergic agonist and alpha1-adrenergic antagonist actions on human isolated internal mammary artery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2007; 21: 696-700

134. Yuen VM, Irwin MG, Hui TW, Yuen MK, Lee LH: A double-blind, crossover assessment of the sedative and analgesic effects of intranasal dexmedetomidine. Anesth Analg 2007; 105: 374-80

135. Abdalla MI, Al Mansouri F, Bener A: Dexmedetomidine during local anesthesia. J Anesth 2006; 20: 54-6

136. Alhashemi JA: Dexmedetomidine vs midazolam for monitored anaesthesia care during cataract surgery. Br J Anaesth 2006; 96: 722-6

137. Aryan HE, Box KW, Ibrahim D, Desiraju U, Ames CP: Safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine in neurosurgical patients. Brain Inj 2006; 20: 791-8

138. Bamgbade OA: Dexmedetomidine for peri-operative sedation and analgesia in alcohol addiction. Anaesthesia 2006; 61: 299-300

139. Bekker A, Gold M, Ahmed R, Kim J, Rockman C, Jacobovitz G, Riles T, Fisch G: Dexmedetomidine does not increase the incidence of intracarotid shunting in patients undergoing awake carotid endarterectomy. Anesth Analg 2006; 103: 955-8

140. Bicer C, Esmaoglu A, Akin A, Boyaci A: Dexmedetomidine and meperidine prevent postanaesthetic shivering. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2006; 23: 149-53

141. Brown BJ, Zakhary S, Rogers L, Ellis-Stoll C, Gable D, Ramsay MA: Use of dexmedetomidine versus general anesthesia for endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 2006; 19: 213-5

142. But AK, Ozgul U, Erdil F, Gulhas N, Toprak HI, Durmus M, Ersoy MO: The effects of pre-operative dexmedetomidine infusion on hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing mitral valve replacement surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2006; 50: 1207-12

143. Chrysostomou C, Di Filippo S, Manrique AM, Schmitt CG, Orr RA, Casta A, Suchoza E, Janosky J, Davis PJ, Munoz R: Use of dexmedetomidine in children after cardiac and thoracic surgery. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2006; 7: 126-31

144. Dasta JF, Jacobi J, Sesti AM, McLaughlin TP: Addition of dexmedetomidine to standard sedation regimens after cardiac surgery: an outcomes analysis. Pharmacotherapy 2006; 26: 798-805

145. Deogaonkar A, Deogaonkar M, Lee JY, Ebrahim Z, Schubert A: Propofol-induced dyskinesias controlled with dexmedetomidine during deep brain stimulation surgery. Anesthesiology 2006; 104: 1337-9

146. Enomoto Y, Kudo T, Saito T, Hori T, Kaneko M, Matsui A, Mizutani T: Prolonged use of dexmedetomidine in an infant with respiratory failure following living donor liver transplantation. Paediatr Anaesth 2006; 16: 1285-8

147. Everett LL, van Rooyen IF, Warner MH, Shurtleff HA, Saneto RP, Ojemann JG: Use of dexmedetomidine in awake craniotomy in adolescents: report of two cases. Paediatr Anaesth 2006; 16: 338-42

148. Farag E, Chahlavi A, Argalious M, Ebrahim Z, Hill R, Bourdakos D, Woo H: Using dexmedetomidine to manage patients with cocaine and opioid withdrawal, who are undergoing cerebral angioplasty for cerebral vasospasm. Anesth Analg 2006; 103: 1618-20

149. Feld JM, Hoffman WE, Stechert MM, Hoffman IW, Ananda RC: Fentanyl or dexmedetomidine combined with desflurane for bariatric surgery. J Clin Anesth 2006; 18: 24-8

150. Fernandes FC, Ferreira HC, Cagido VR, Carvalho GM, Pereira LS, Faffe DS, Zin WA, Rocco PR: Effects of dexmedetomidine on respiratory mechanics and control of breathing in normal rats. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2006; 154: 342-50

151. Frumento RJ, Logginidou HG, Wahlander S, Wagener G, Playford HR, Sladen RN: Dexmedetomidine infusion is associated with enhanced renal function after thoracic surgery. J Clin Anesth 2006; 18: 422-6

152. Gomez-Villamandos RJ, Palacios C, Benitez A, Granados MM, Dominguez JM, Lopez I, Ruiz I, Aguilera E, Santisteban JM: Dexmedetomidine or medetomidine premedication before propofol-desflurane anaesthesia in dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2006; 29: 157-63

153. Granholm M, McKusick BC, Westerholm FC, Aspegren JC: Evaluation of the clinical efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine or medetomidine in cats and their reversal with atipamezole. Vet Anaesth Analg 2006; 33: 214-23

154. Gurbet A, Basagan-Mogol E, Turker G, Ugun F, Kaya FN, Ozcan B: Intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine reduces perioperative analgesic requirements. Can J Anaesth 2006; 53: 646-52

155. Haenggi M, Ypparila H, Hauser K, Caviezel C, Korhonen I, Takala J, Jakob SM: The effects of dexmedetomidine/remifentanil and midazolam/remifentanil on auditory-evoked potentials and electroencephalogram at light-to-moderate sedation levels in healthy subjects. Anesth Analg 2006; 103: 1163-9

156. Iida H, Iida M, Ohata H, Michino T, Dohi S: Effects of dexmedetomidine on cerebral circulation and systemic hemodynamics after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dogs. J Anesth 2006; 20: 202-7

157. Ishikawa S, Kugawa S, Neya K, Suzuki Y, Kawasaki A, Hayama T, Ueda K: Hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine in patients after cardiac surgery. Minerva Chir 2006; 61: 215-9

158. Isik B, Arslan M, Tunga AD, Kurtipek O: Dexmedetomidine decreases emergence agitation in pediatric patients after sevoflurane anesthesia without surgery. Paediatr Anaesth 2006; 16: 748-53

159. Jackson KC, 3rd, Wohlt P, Fine PG: Dexmedetomidine: a novel analgesic with palliative medicine potential. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2006; 20: 23-7

160. Kanazi GE, Aouad MT, Jabbour-Khoury SI, Al Jazzar MD, Alameddine MM, Al-Yaman R, Bulbul M, Baraka AS: Effect of low-dose dexmedetomidine or clonidine on the characteristics of bupivacaine spinal block. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2006; 50: 222-7

161. Karaaslan D, Peker TT, Alaca A, Ozmen S, Kirdemir P, Yorgancigil H, Baydar ML: Comparison of buccal and intramuscular dexmedetomidine premedication for arthroscopic knee surgery. J Clin Anesth 2006; 18: 589-93

162. Karaman S, Evren V, Firat V, Cankayali I: The effects of dexmedetomidine on spontaneous contractions of isolated gravid rat myometrium. Adv Ther 2006; 23: 238-43

163. Keles GT, Kurutepe S, Tok D, Gazi H, Dinc G: Comparison of antimicrobial effects of dexmedetomidine and etomidate-lipuro with those of propofol and midazolam. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2006; 23: 1037-40

164. Koroglu A, Teksan H, Sagir O, Yucel A, Toprak HI, Ersoy OM: A comparison of the sedative, hemodynamic, and respiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Anesth Analg 2006; 103: 63-7, table of contents

165. Kremer MJ: Dexmedetomidine as a sole sedating agent with local anesthesia in a high risk patient for axillofemoral bypass graft. Aana J 2006; 74: 9; author reply 9

166. Kutter AP, Kastner SB, Bettschart-Wolfensberger R, Huhtinen M: Cardiopulmonary effects of dexmedetomidine in goats and sheep anaesthetised with sevoflurane. Vet Rec 2006; 159: 624-9

167. Leppanen MK, McKusick BC, Granholm MM, Westerholm FC, Tulamo R, Short CE: Clinical efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine, butorphanol or diazepam for canine hip radiography. J Small Anim Pract 2006; 47: 663-9

168. Linden AM, Aller MI, Leppa E, Vekovischeva O, Aitta-Aho T, Veale EL, Mathie A, Rosenberg P, Wisden W, Korpi ER: The in vivo contributions of TASK-1-containing channels to the actions of inhalation anesthetics, the alpha(2) adrenergic sedative dexmedetomidine, and cannabinoid agonists. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 317: 615-26

169. Luscri N, Tobias JD: Monitored anesthesia care with a combination of ketamine and dexmedetomidine during magnetic resonance imaging in three children with trisomy 21 and obstructive sleep apnea. Paediatr Anaesth 2006; 16: 782-6

170. Mason KP, Zgleszewski SE, Dearden JL, Dumont RS, Pirich MA, Stark CD, D'Angelo P, Macpherson S, Fontaine PJ, Connor L, Zurakowski D: Dexmedetomidine for pediatric sedation for computed tomography imaging studies. Anesth Analg 2006; 103: 57-62, table of contents

171. McCutcheon CA, Orme RM, Scott DA, Davies MJ, McGlade DP: A comparison of dexmedetomidine versus conventional therapy for sedation and hemodynamic control during carotid endarterectomy performed under regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2006; 102: 668-75

172. Memis D, Dokmeci D, Karamanlioglu B, Turan A, Ture M: A comparison of the effect on gastric emptying of propofol or dexmedetomidine in critically ill patients: preliminary study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2006; 23: 700-4

173. Moore TA, 2nd, Markert JM, Knowlton RC: Dexmedetomidine as rescue drug during awake craniotomy for cortical motor mapping and tumor resection. Anesth Analg 2006; 102: 1556-8

174. Mukhtar AM, Obayah EM, Hassona AM: Preliminary experience with dexmedetomidine in pediatric anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2006; 103: 250

175. Mukhtar AM, Obayah EM, Hassona AM: The use of dexmedetomidine in pediatric cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg 2006; 103: 52-6, table of contents

176. Ozkose Z, Demir FS, Pampal K, Yardim S: Hemodynamic and anesthetic advantages of dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-agonist, for surgery in prone position. Tohoku J Exp Med 2006; 210: 153-60

177. Paris A, Mantz J, Tonner PH, Hein L, Brede M, Gressens P: The effects of dexmedetomidine on perinatal excitotoxic brain injury are mediated by the alpha2A-adrenoceptor subtype. Anesth Analg 2006; 102: 456-61

178. Pascoe PJ, Raekallio M, Kuusela E, McKusick B, Granholm M: Changes in the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane and some cardiopulmonary measurements during three continuous infusion rates of dexmedetomidine in dogs. Vet Anaesth Analg 2006; 33: 97-103

179. Petroz GC, Sikich N, James M, van Dyk H, Shafer SL, Schily M, Lerman J: A phase I, two-center study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine in children. Anesthesiology 2006; 105: 1098-110

180. Rajakumaraswamy N, Ma D, Hossain M, Sanders RD, Franks NP, Maze M: Neuroprotective interaction produced by xenon and dexmedetomidine on in vitro and in vivo neuronal injury models. Neurosci Lett 2006; 409: 128-33

181. Ramsay MA, Saha D, Hebeler RF: Tracheal resection in the morbidly obese patient: the role of dexmedetomidine. J Clin Anesth 2006; 18: 452-4

182. Rioja E, Santos M, Martinez Taboada F, Ibancovichi JA, Tendillo FJ: Cardiorespiratory and minimum alveolar concentration sparing effects of a continuous intravenous infusion of dexmedetomidine in halothane or isoflurane-anaesthetized rats. Lab Anim 2006; 40: 9-15

183. Rosen DA, Daume JT: Short duration large dose dexmedetomidine in a pediatric patient during procedural sedation. Anesth Analg 2006; 103: 68-9, table of contents

184. Rovasalo A, Tohmo H, Aantaa R, Kettunen E, Palojoki R: Dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal delirium: a case report. Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2006; 28: 362-3

185. Rozet I, Muangman S, Vavilala MS, Lee LA, Souter MJ, Domino KJ, Slimp JC, Goodkin R, Lam AM: Clinical experience with dexmedetomidine for implantation of deep brain stimulators in Parkinson's disease. Anesth Analg 2006; 103: 1224-8

186. Siobal MS, Kallet RH, Kivett VA, Tang JF: Use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate extubation in surgical intensive-care-unit patients who failed previous weaning attempts following prolonged mechanical ventilation: a pilot study. Respir Care 2006; 51: 492-6

187. Snapir A, Posti J, Kentala E, Koskenvuo J, Sundell J, Tuunanen H, Hakala K, Scheinin H, Knuuti J, Scheinin M: Effects of low and high plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine on myocardial perfusion and cardiac function in healthy male subjects. Anesthesiology 2006; 105: 902-10; quiz 1069-70

188. Stamenkovic DM, Hassid M: Dexmedetomidine for fiberoptic intubation of a patient with severe mental retardation and atlantoaxial instability. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2006; 50: 1314-5

189. Stemp LI, Karras GE, Jr.: Dexmedetomidine facilitates withdrawal of ventilatory support. Anesthesiology 2006; 104: 890; author reply 890

190. Tanskanen PE, Kytta JV, Randell TT, Aantaa RE: Dexmedetomidine as an anaesthetic adjuvant in patients undergoing intracranial tumour surgery: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled study. Br J Anaesth 2006; 97: 658-65

191. Terajima K, Takeda S, Taniai N, Tanaka K, Oda Y, Asada A, Sakamoto A: Repeated dexmedetomidine infusions, a postoperative living-donor liver transplantation patient. J Anesth 2006; 20: 234-6

192. Tobias JD: Dexmedetomidine to treat opioid withdrawal in infants following prolonged sedation in the pediatric ICU. J Opioid Manag 2006; 2: 201-5

193. Tosun Z, Akin A, Guler G, Esmaoglu A, Boyaci A: Dexmedetomidine-ketamine and propofol-ketamine combinations for anesthesia in spontaneously breathing pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006; 20: 515-9

194. Turkmen A, Altan A, Turgut N, Vatansever S, Gokkaya S: The correlation between the Richmond agitation-sedation scale and bispectral index during dexmedetomidine sedation. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2006; 23: 300-4

195. Unger RJ: General anesthesia with dexmedetomidine in a malignant hyperthermia-susceptible woman. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2006; 50: 1312-3

196. Ustun Y, Gunduz M, Erdogan O, Benlidayi ME: Dexmedetomidine versus midazolam in outpatient third molar surgery. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2006; 64: 1353-8

197. Walker J, Maccallum M, Fischer C, Kopcha R, Saylors R, McCall J: Sedation using dexmedetomidine in pediatric burn patients. J Burn Care Res 2006; 27: 206-10

198. Whittington RA, Virag L: Dexmedetomidine-induced decreases in accumbal dopamine in the rat are partly mediated via the locus coeruleus. Anesth Analg 2006; 102: 448-55

199. Willigers HM, Prinzen FW, Roekaerts PM: The effects of esmolol and dexmedetomidine on myocardial oxygen consumption during sympathetic stimulation in dogs. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2006; 20: 364-70

200. Yazbek-Karam VG, Aouad MM: Perioperative uses of dexmedetomidine. Middle East J Anesthesiol 2006; 18: 1043-58

201. Yildiz M, Tavlan A, Tuncer S, Reisli R, Yosunkaya A, Otelcioglu S: Effect of dexmedetomidine on haemodynamic responses to laryngoscopy and intubation : perioperative haemodynamics and anaesthetic requirements. Drugs R D 2006; 7: 43-52

202. Almeida AN, Tavares C, Tibano A, Sasaki S, Murata KN, Marino R, Jr.: Dexmedetomidine for awake craniotomy without laryngeal mask. Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2005; 63: 748-50

203. Ard JL, Jr., Bekker AY, Doyle WK: Dexmedetomidine in awake craniotomy: a technical note. Surg Neurol 2005; 63: 114-6; discussion 116-7

204. Avitsian R, Lin J, Lotto M, Ebrahim Z: Dexmedetomidine and awake fiberoptic intubation for possible cervical spine myelopathy: a clinical series. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2005; 17: 97-9

205. Baddigam K, Russo P, Russo J, Tobias JD: Dexmedetomidine in the treatment of withdrawal syndromes in cardiothoracic surgery patients. J Intensive Care Med 2005; 20: 118-23

206. Bekker A, Sturaitis MK: Dexmedetomidine for neurological surgery. Neurosurgery 2005; 57: 1-10; discussion 1-10

207. Berkenbosch JW, Wankum PC, Tobias JD: Prospective evaluation of dexmedetomidine for noninvasive procedural sedation in children. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2005; 6: 435-9; quiz 440

208. Bettschart-Wolfensberger R, Freeman SL, Bowen IM, Aliabadi FS, Weller R, Huhtinen M, Clarke KW: Cardiopulmonary effects and pharmacokinetics of i.v. dexmedetomidine in ponies. Equine Vet J 2005; 37: 60-4

209. Blake DW, Scott DA, Angus JA, Wright CE: Synergy between intrathecal omega-conotoxin CVID and dexmedetomidine to attenuate mechanical hypersensitivity in the rat. Eur J Pharmacol 2005; 506: 221-7

210. Calasans-Maia JA, Zapata-Sudo G, Sudo RT: Dexmedetomidine prolongs spinal anaesthesia induced by levobupivacaine 0.5% in guinea-pigs. J Pharm Pharmacol 2005; 57: 1415-20

211. Chrysostomou C, Zeballos T: Use of dexmedetomidine in a pediatric heart transplant patient. Pediatr Cardiol 2005; 26: 651-4

212. Corbett SM, Rebuck JA, Greene CM, Callas PW, Neale BW, Healey MA, Leavitt BJ: Dexmedetomidine does not improve patient satisfaction when compared with propofol during mechanical ventilation. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 940-5

213. Dahmani S, Rouelle D, Gressens P, Mantz J: Effects of dexmedetomidine on hippocampal focal adhesion kinase tyrosine phosphorylation in physiologic and ischemic conditions. Anesthesiology 2005; 103: 969-77

214. Esmaoglu A, Mizrak A, Akin A, Turk Y, Boyaci A: Addition of dexmedetomidine to lidocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2005; 22: 447-51

215. Finkel JC, Johnson YJ, Quezado ZM: The use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate acute discontinuation of opioids after cardiac transplantation in children. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 2110-2

216. Golembiewski J: Dexmedetomidine--does it have a role in the perioperative setting? J Perianesth Nurs 2005; 20: 289-91

217. Guler G, Akin A, Tosun Z, Eskitascoglu E, Mizrak A, Boyaci A: Single-dose dexmedetomidine attenuates airway and circulatory reflexes during extubation. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2005; 49: 1088-91

218. Guler G, Akin A, Tosun Z, Ors S, Esmaoglu A, Boyaci A: Single-dose dexmedetomidine reduces agitation and provides smooth extubation after pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Paediatr Anaesth 2005; 15: 762-6

219. Guo H, Takahashi S, Cho S, Hara T, Tomiyasu S, Sumikawa K: The effects of dexmedetomidine on left ventricular function during hypoxia and reoxygenation in isolated rat hearts. Anesth Analg 2005; 100: 629-35, table of contents

220. Hammer GB, Philip BM, Schroeder AR, Rosen FS, Koltai PJ: Prolonged infusion of dexmedetomidine for sedation following tracheal resection. Paediatr Anaesth 2005; 15: 616-20

221. Ho AM, Chen S, Karmakar MK: Central apnoea after balanced general anaesthesia that included dexmedetomidine. Br J Anaesth 2005; 95: 773-5

222. Hofer RE, Sprung J, Sarr MG, Wedel DJ: Anesthesia for a patient with morbid obesity using dexmedetomidine without narcotics. Can J Anaesth 2005; 52: 176-80

223. Horvath G, Kekesi G, Dobos I, Klimscha W, Benedek G: Long-term changes in the antinociceptive potency of morphine or dexmedetomidine after a single treatment. Anesth Analg 2005; 101: 812-8, table of contents

224. Inada T, Shirane A, Hamano N, Yamada M, Kambara T, Shingu K: Effect of subhypnotic doses of dexmedetomidine on antitumor immunity in mice. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2005; 27: 357-69

225. Jalowiecki P, Rudner R, Gonciarz M, Kawecki P, Petelenz M, Dziurdzik P: Sole use of dexmedetomidine has limited utility for conscious sedation during outpatient colonoscopy. Anesthesiology 2005; 103: 269-73

226. Jooste EH, Ohkawa S, Sun LS: Fiberoptic intubation with dexmedetomidine in two children with spinal cord impingements. Anesth Analg 2005; 101: 1248

227. Kastner SB, Kull S, Kutter AP, Boller J, Bettschart-Wolfensberger R, Huhtinen MK: Cardiopulmonary effects of dexmedetomidine in sevoflurane-anesthetized sheep with and without nitric oxide inhalation. Am J Vet Res 2005; 66: 1496-502

228. Kent CD, Kaufman BS, Lowy J: Dexmedetomidine facilitates the withdrawal of ventilatory support in palliative care. Anesthesiology 2005; 103: 439-41

229. Koroglu A, Demirbilek S, Teksan H, Sagir O, But AK, Ersoy MO: Sedative, haemodynamic and respiratory effects of dexmedetomidine in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging examination: preliminary results. Br J Anaesth 2005; 94: 821-4

230. Maroof M, Khan RM, Jain D, Ashraf M: Dexmedetomidine is a useful adjunct for awake intubation. Can J Anaesth 2005; 52: 776-7

231. Masuki S, Dinenno FA, Joyner MJ, Eisenach JH: Selective alpha2-adrenergic properties of dexmedetomidine over clonidine in the human forearm. J Appl Physiol 2005; 99: 587-92

232. Memis D, Turan A, Kaya G, Karamanlioglu B, Seker S: Preventing pain on injection of rocuronium: two doses of dexmedetomidine. Can J Anaesth 2005; 52: 437-8

233. Munoz R, Berry D: Dexmedetomidine: promising drug for pediatric sedation? Pediatr Crit Care Med 2005; 6: 493-4

234. Murrell JC, Hellebrekers LJ: Medetomidine and dexmedetomidine: a review of cardiovascular effects and antinociceptive properties in the dog. Vet Anaesth Analg 2005; 32: 117-27

235. Muttu S, Liu EH, Ang SB, Chew PT, Lee TL, Ti LK: Comparison of dexmedetomidine and midazolam sedation for cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. J Cataract Refract Surg 2005; 31: 1845-6

236. Nichols DP, Berkenbosch JW, Tobias JD: Rescue sedation with dexmedetomidine for diagnostic imaging: a preliminary report. Paediatr Anaesth 2005; 15: 199-203

237. Paris A, Tonner PH: Dexmedetomidine in anaesthesia. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2005; 18: 412-8

238. Raekallio MR, Kuusela EK, Lehtinen ME, Tykkylainen MK, Huttunen P, Westerholm FC: Effects of exercise-induced stress and dexamethasone on plasma hormone and glucose concentrations and sedation in dogs treated with dexmedetomidine. Am J Vet Res 2005; 66: 260-5

239. Rich JM: Dexmedetomidine as a sole sedating agent with local anesthesia in a high-risk patient for axillofemoral bypass graft: a case report. Aana J 2005; 73: 357-60

240. Sanders RD, Giombini M, Ma D, Ohashi Y, Hossain M, Fujinaga M, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine exerts dose-dependent age-independent antinociception but age-dependent hypnosis in Fischer rats. Anesth Analg 2005; 100: 1295-302, table of contents

241. Shukry M, Clyde MC, Kalarickal PL, Ramadhyani U: Does dexmedetomidine prevent emergence delirium in children after sevoflurane-based general anesthesia? Paediatr Anaesth 2005; 15: 1098-104

242. Shukry M, Ramadhyani U: Dexmedetomidine as the primary sedative agent for brain radiation therapy in a 21-month old child. Paediatr Anaesth 2005; 15: 241-2

243. Sia AT, Kwek K, Yeo GS: The in vitro effects of clonidine and dexmedetomidine on human myometrium. Int J Obstet Anesth 2005; 14: 104-7

244. Tanaka K, Oda Y, Funao T, Takahashi R, Hamaoka N, Asada A: Dexmedetomidine decreases the convulsive potency of bupivacaine and levobupivacaine in rats: involvement of alpha2-adrenoceptor for controlling convulsions. Anesth Analg 2005; 100: 687-96, table of contents

245. Tobias JD: Dexmedetomidine in the treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome. Paediatr Anaesth 2005; 15: 709-10

246. Turan A, Memis D, Kaya G, Karamanlioglu B: The prevention of pain from injection of propofol by dexmedetomidine and comparison with lidocaine. Can J Anaesth 2005; 52: 548-9

247. Unlugenc H, Gunduz M, Guler T, Yagmur O, Isik G: The effect of pre-anaesthetic administration of intravenous dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain in patients receiving patient-controlled morphine. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2005; 22: 386-91

248. Votava M, Hess L, Sliva J, Krsiak M, Agova V: Dexmedetomidine selectively suppresses dominant behaviour in aggressive and sociable mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2005; 523: 79-85

249. Wahlander S, Frumento RJ, Wagener G, Saldana-Ferretti B, Joshi RR, Playford HR, Sladen RN: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to epidural analgesia after thoracic surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2005; 19: 630-5

250. Walker SM, Howard RF, Keay KA, Fitzgerald M: Developmental age influences the effect of epidural dexmedetomidine on inflammatory hyperalgesia in rat pups. Anesthesiology 2005; 102: 1226-34

251. Young ET: Dexmedetomidine sedation in a pediatric cardiac patient scheduled for MRI. Can J Anaesth 2005; 52: 730-2

252. Zub D, Berkenbosch JW, Tobias JD: Preliminary experience with oral dexmedetomidine for procedural and anesthetic premedication. Paediatr Anaesth 2005; 15: 932-8

253. Alhashemi JA, Kaki AM: Dexmedetomidine in combination with morphine PCA provides superior analgesia for shockwave lithotripsy. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 342-7

254. Angst MS, Ramaswamy B, Davies MF, Maze M: Comparative analgesic and mental effects of increasing plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine and alfentanil in humans. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 744-52

255. Arain SR, Ruehlow RM, Uhrich TD, Ebert TJ: The efficacy of dexmedetomidine versus morphine for postoperative analgesia after major inpatient surgery. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 153-8, table of contents

256. Bekker AY, Basile J, Gold M, Riles T, Adelman M, Cuff G, Mathew JP, Goldberg JD: Dexmedetomidine for awake carotid endarterectomy: efficacy, hemodynamic profile, and side effects. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2004; 16: 126-35

257. Cortinez LI, Hsu YW, Sum-Ping ST, Young C, Keifer JC, Macleod D, Robertson KM, Wright DR, Moretti EW, Somma J: Dexmedetomidine pharmacodynamics: Part II: Crossover comparison of the analgesic effect of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1077-83

258. Dasta JF, Kane-Gill SL, Durtschi AJ: Comparing dexmedetomidine prescribing patterns and safety in the naturalistic setting versus published data. Ann Pharmacother 2004; 38: 1130-5

259. Dawson C, Ma D, Chow A, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine enhances analgesic action of nitrous oxide: mechanisms of action. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 894-904

260. Ebert T, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine: another arrow for the clinician's quiver. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 568-70

261. Elbaradie S, El Mahalawy FH, Solyman AH: Dexmedetomidine vs. propofol for short-term sedation of postoperative mechanically ventilated patients. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2004; 16: 153-8

262. Fahy CJ, Okumura M: Sedation for paediatric stereotactic radiosurgery: the dexmedetomidine experience. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 809-11

263. Finkel JC, Elrefai A: The use of dexmedetomidine to facilitate opioid and benzodiazepine detoxification in an infant. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1658-9, table of contents

264. Grant SA, Breslin DS, MacLeod DB, Gleason D, Martin G: Dexmedetomidine infusion for sedation during fiberoptic intubation: a report of three cases. J Clin Anesth 2004; 16: 124-6

265. Groeben H, Mitzner W, Brown RH: Effects of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine on bronchoconstriction in dogs. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 359-63

266. Hall SR, Wang L, Milne B, Hong M: Central dexmedetomidine attenuates cardiac dysfunction in a rodent model of intracranial hypertension. Can J Anaesth 2004; 51: 1025-33

267. Hirota K, Nomura H, Kudo M, Mori N, Kudo T, Kushikata T: Supraclinical concentrations of dexmedetomidine evoke norepinephrine release from rat cerebrocortical slices possible involvement of the orexin-1 receptor. Neurosci Lett 2004; 372: 142-5

268. Hsu YW, Cortinez LI, Robertson KM, Keifer JC, Sum-Ping ST, Moretti EW, Young CC, Wright DR, Macleod DB, Somma J: Dexmedetomidine pharmacodynamics: part I: crossover comparison of the respiratory effects of dexmedetomidine and remifentanil in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1066-76

269. Ibacache ME, Munoz HR, Brandes V, Morales AL: Single-dose dexmedetomidine reduces agitation after sevoflurane anesthesia in children. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 60-3, table of contents

270. Ickeringill M, Shehabi Y, Adamson H, Ruettimann U: Dexmedetomidine infusion without loading dose in surgical patients requiring mechanical ventilation: haemodynamic effects and efficacy. Anaesth Intensive Care 2004; 32: 741-5

271. Iida H, Iida M, Ohata H, Nagase K, Dohi S: Hypothermia attenuates the vasodilator effects of dexmedetomidine on pial vessels in rabbits in vivo. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 477-82, table of contents

272. Ingersoll-Weng E, Manecke GR, Jr., Thistlethwaite PA: Dexmedetomidine and cardiac arrest. Anesthesiology 2004; 100: 738-9

273. Ji QC, Zhou JY, Gonzales RJ, Gage EM, El-Shourbagy TA: Simultaneous quantitation of dexmedetomidine and glucuronide metabolites (G-Dex-1 and G-Dex-2) in human plasma utilizing liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2004; 18: 1753-60

274. Jorden VS, Pousman RM, Sanford MM, Thorborg PA, Hutchens MP: Dexmedetomidine overdose in the perioperative setting. Ann Pharmacother 2004; 38: 803-7

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276. Mack PF, Perrine K, Kobylarz E, Schwartz TH, Lien CA: Dexmedetomidine and neurocognitive testing in awake craniotomy. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2004; 16: 20-5

277. Maze M, Angst MS: Dexmedetomidine and opioid interactions: defining the role of dexmedetomidine for intensive care unit sedation. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1059-61

278. Memis D, Turan A, Karamanlioglu B, Pamukcu Z, Kurt I: Adding dexmedetomidine to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 835-40, table of contents

279. Muntazar M, Kumar FC: Cardiac arrest, a preventable yet a possible risk of dexmedetomidine: fact or fiction? Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1478-9; author reply 1479-80

280. Penttila J, Helminen A, Anttila M, Hinkka S, Scheinin H: Cardiovascular and parasympathetic effects of dexmedetomidine in healthy subjects. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 82: 359-62

281. Ramsay MA, Luterman DL: Dexmedetomidine as a total intravenous anesthetic agent. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 787-90

282. Selmi AL, Mendes GM, Boere V, Cozer LA, Filho ES, Silva CA: Assessment of dexmedetomidine/ketamine anesthesia in golden-headed lion tamarins (Leontopithecus chrysomelas). Vet Anaesth Analg 2004; 31: 138-45

283. Selmi AL, Mendes GM, Figueiredo JP, Barbudo-Selmi GR, Lins BT: Comparison of medetomidine-ketamine and dexmedetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in golden-headed lion tamarins. Can Vet J 2004; 45: 481-5

284. Serlin S: Dexmedetomidine in pediatrics: controlled studies needed. Anesth Analg 2004; 98: 1814

285. Serlin S: Dexmedetomidine in pediatrics: controlled studies needed. Paediatr Anaesth 2004; 14: 532

286. Shehabi Y, Ruettimann U, Adamson H, Innes R, Ickeringill M: Dexmedetomidine infusion for more than 24 hours in critically ill patients: sedative and cardiovascular effects. Intensive Care Med 2004; 30: 2188-96

287. Shetty G, Heyer EJ, Connolly ES: Dexmedetomidine as primary sedative in CEA patients. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2004; 16: 320; author reply 320-1

288. Taniguchi T, Kidani Y, Kanakura H, Takemoto Y, Yamamoto K: Effects of dexmedetomidine on mortality rate and inflammatory responses to endotoxin-induced shock in rats. Crit Care Med 2004; 32: 1322-6

289. Tezuka M, Kitajima T, Yamaguchi S, Kimura Y, Hamaguchi S: Addition of dexmedetomidine prolongs duration of vasodilation induced by sympathetic block with mepivacaine in dogs. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2004; 29: 323-7

290. Tobias JD, Berkenbosch JW: Sedation during mechanical ventilation in infants and children: dexmedetomidine versus midazolam. South Med J 2004; 97: 451-5

291. Veselis RA, Reinsel RA, Feshchenko VA, Johnson R, Jr.: Information loss over time defines the memory defect of propofol: a comparative response with thiopental and dexmedetomidine. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 831-41

292. Videira RL, Ferreira RM: Dexmedetomidine and asystole. Anesthesiology 2004; 101: 1479; author reply 1479-80

293. Willigers HM, Prinzen FW, Roekaerts PM: Comparison of the effects of dexmedetomidine and esmolol on myocardial oxygen consumption in dogs. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2004; 21: 957-66

294. Wong AY, Cheung CW: Dexmedetomidine for resection of a large phaeochromocytoma with invasion into the inferior vena cava. Br J Anaesth 2004; 93: 873

295. Anttila M, Penttila J, Helminen A, Vuorilehto L, Scheinin H: Bioavailability of dexmedetomidine after extravascular doses in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2003; 56: 691-3

296. Ard J, Doyle W, Bekker A: Awake craniotomy with dexmedetomidine in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2003; 15: 263-6

297. Berkenbosch JW, Tobias JD: Development of bradycardia during sedation with dexmedetomidine in an infant concurrently receiving digoxin. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2003; 4: 203-5

298. Blake DW, Wright CE, Scott DA, Angus JA: Cardiovascular reflex responses after intrathecal omega-conotoxins or dexmedetomidine in the rabbit. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2003; 30: 82-7

299. Davies MF, Haimor F, Lighthall G, Clark JD: Dexmedetomidine fails to cause hyperalgesia after cessation of chronic administration. Anesth Analg 2003; 96: 195-200, table of contents

300. Doufas AG, Lin CM, Suleman MI, Liem EB, Lenhardt R, Morioka N, Akca O, Shah YM, Bjorksten AR, Sessler DI: Dexmedetomidine and meperidine additively reduce the shivering threshold in humans. Stroke 2003; 34: 1218-23

301. Engelhard K, Werner C, Eberspacher E, Bachl M, Blobner M, Hildt E, Hutzler P, Kochs E: The effect of the alpha 2-agonist dexmedetomidine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist S(+)-ketamine on the expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins after incomplete cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in rats. Anesth Analg 2003; 96: 524-31, table of contents

302. Herr DL, Sum-Ping ST, England M: ICU sedation after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: dexmedetomidine-based versus propofol-based sedation regimens. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2003; 17: 576-84

303. Khasawinah TA, Ramirez A, Berkenbosch JW, Tobias JD: Preliminary experience with dexmedetomidine in the treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome. Am J Ther 2003; 10: 303-7

304. Kuusela E, Vainio O, Short CE, Leppaluoto J, Huttunen P, Strom S, Huju V, Valtonen A, Raekallio M: A comparison of propofol infusion and propofol/isoflurane anaesthesia in dexmedetomidine premedicated dogs. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2003; 26: 199-204

305. Li BH, Lohmann JS, Schuler HG, Cronin AJ: Preservation of the cortical somatosensory-evoked potential during dexmedetomidine infusion in rats. Anesth Analg 2003; 96: 1155-60, table of contents

306. Maccioli GA: Dexmedetomidine to facilitate drug withdrawal. Anesthesiology 2003; 98: 575-7

307. Martin E, Ramsay G, Mantz J, Sum-Ping ST: The role of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine in postsurgical sedation in the intensive care unit. J Intensive Care Med 2003; 18: 29-41

308. Mendes GM, Selmi AL, Barbudo-Selmi GR, Lins BT, Figueiredo JP: Clinical use of dexmedetomidine as premedicant in cats undergoing propofol-sevoflurane anaesthesia. J Feline Med Surg 2003; 5: 265-70

309. Multz AS: Prolonged dexmedetomidine infusion as an adjunct in treating sedation-induced withdrawal. Anesth Analg 2003; 96: 1054-5, table of contents

310. Nakao S: Is attenuation of extracellular dopamine increase in the nucleus accumbens the major mechanism by which dexmedetomidine increases the cocaine seizure threshold in rats? Anesthesiology 2003; 98: 1520; author reply 1520

311. Nelson LE, Lu J, Guo T, Saper CB, Franks NP, Maze M: The alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine converges on an endogenous sleep-promoting pathway to exert its sedative effects. Anesthesiology 2003; 98: 428-36

312. Scher CS, Gitlin MC: Dexmedetomidine and low-dose ketamine provide adequate sedation for awake fibreoptic intubation. Can J Anaesth 2003; 50: 607-10

313. Selmi AL, Mendes GM, Lins BT, Figueiredo JP, Barbudo-Selmi GR: Evaluation of the sedative and cardiorespiratory effects of dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine-butorphanol, and dexmedetomidine-ketamine in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 222: 37-41

314. Shimode N, Fukuoka T, Tanimoto M, Tashiro C, Tokunaga A, Noguchi K: The effects of dexmedetomidine and halothane on Fos expression in the spinal dorsal horn using a rat postoperative pain model. Neurosci Lett 2003; 343: 45-8

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316. Tobias JD, Berkenbosch JW, Russo P: Additional experience with dexmedetomidine in pediatric patients. South Med J 2003; 96: 871-5

317. Venn M, Newman J, Grounds M: A phase II study to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine for sedation in the medical intensive care unit. Intensive Care Med 2003; 29: 201-7

318. Willigers HM, Prinzen FW, Roekaerts PM, de Lange S, Durieux ME: Dexmedetomidine decreases perioperative myocardial lactate release in dogs. Anesth Analg 2003; 96: 657-64, table of contents

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320. Arain SR, Ebert TJ: The efficacy, side effects, and recovery characteristics of dexmedetomidine versus propofol when used for intraoperative sedation. Anesth Analg 2002; 95: 461-6, table of contents

321. Bustillo MA, Lazar RM, Finck AD, Fitzsimmons B, Berman MF, Pile-Spellman J, Heyer EJ: Dexmedetomidine may impair cognitive testing during endovascular embolization of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a retrospective case report series. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 2002; 14: 209-12

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324. Engelhard K, Werner C, Kaspar S, Mollenberg O, Blobner M, Bachl M, Kochs E: Effect of the alpha2-agonist dexmedetomidine on cerebral neurotransmitter concentrations during cerebral ischemia in rats. Anesthesiology 2002; 96: 450-7

325. Hamasaki J, Tsuneyoshi I, Katai R, Hidaka T, Boyle WA, Kanmura Y: Dual alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist and alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist actions of dexmedetomidine on human isolated endothelium-denuded gastroepiploic arteries. Anesth Analg 2002; 94: 1434-40, table of contents

326. Herbert MK, Roth-Goldbrunner S, Holzer P, Roewer N: Clonidine and dexmedetomidine potently inhibit peristalsis in the Guinea pig ileum in vitro. Anesthesiology 2002; 97: 1491-9

327. Hogue CW, Jr., Talke P, Stein PK, Richardson C, Domitrovich PP, Sessler DI: Autonomic nervous system responses during sedative infusions of dexmedetomidine. Anesthesiology 2002; 97: 592-8

328. Kortesuo P, Ahola M, Kangas M, Jokinen M, Leino T, Vuorilehto L, Laakso S, Kiesvaara J, Yli-Urpo A, Marvola M: Effect of synthesis parameters of the sol-gel-processed spray-dried silica gel microparticles on the release rate of dexmedetomidine. Biomaterials 2002; 23: 2795-801

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330. Laudenbach V, Mantz J, Lagercrantz H, Desmonts JM, Evrard P, Gressens P: Effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists on perinatal excitotoxic brain injury: comparison of clonidine and dexmedetomidine. Anesthesiology 2002; 96: 134-41

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332. Nishida T, Nishimura M, Kagawa K, Hayashi Y, Mashimo T: The effects of dexmedetomidine on the ventilatory response to hypercapnia in rabbits. Intensive Care Med 2002; 28: 969-75

333. Prielipp RC, Wall MH, Tobin JR, Groban L, Cannon MA, Fahey FH, Gage HD, Stump DA, James RL, Bennett J, Butterworth J: Dexmedetomidine-induced sedation in volunteers decreases regional and global cerebral blood flow. Anesth Analg 2002; 95: 1052-9, table of contents

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360. Peden CJ, Cloote AH, Stratford N, Prys-Roberts C: The effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine premedication on the dose requirement of propofol to induce loss of consciousness in patients receiving alfentanil. Anaesthesia 2001; 56: 408-13

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394. Miyazaki Y, Adachi T, Kurata J, Utsumi J, Shichino T, Segawa H: Dexmedetomidine reduces seizure threshold during enflurane anaesthesia in cats. Br J Anaesth 1999; 82: 935-7

395. Nishina K, Akamatsu H, Mikawa K, Shiga M, Maekawa N, Obara H, Niwa Y: The effects of clonidine and dexmedetomidine on human neutrophil functions. Anesth Analg 1999; 88: 452-8

396. Ohata H, Iida H, Dohi S, Watanabe Y: Intravenous dexmedetomidine inhibits cerebrovascular dilation induced by isoflurane and sevoflurane in dogs. Anesth Analg 1999; 89: 370-7

397. Riihioja P, Jaatinen P, Haapalinna A, Kiianmaa K, Hervonen A: Effects of dexmedetomidine on rat locus coeruleus and ethanol withdrawal symptoms during intermittent ethanol exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1999; 23: 432-8

398. Schmeling WT, Ganjoo P, Staunton M, Drexler C, Farber NE: Pretreatment with dexmedetomidine: altered indices of anesthetic depth for halothane in the neuraxis of cats. Anesth Analg 1999; 88: 625-32

399. Talke PO, Caldwell JE, Richardson CA, Kirkegaard-Nielsen H, Stafford M: The effects of dexmedetomidine on neuromuscular blockade in human volunteers. Anesth Analg 1999; 88: 633-9

400. Thornton C, Lucas MA, Newton DE, Dore CJ, Jones RM: Effects of dexmedetomidine on isoflurane requirements in healthy volunteers. 2: Auditory and somatosensory evoked responses. Br J Anaesth 1999; 83: 381-6

401. Tonner PH, Scholz J, Schlamp N, Schulte am Esch J: Inhibition of nitric oxide metabolism enhances the hypnotic-anesthetic action of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine in vivo. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1999; 11: 37-41

402. Venn RM, Bradshaw CJ, Spencer R, Brealey D, Caudwell E, Naughton C, Vedio A, Singer M, Feneck R, Treacher D, Willatts SM, Grounds RM: Preliminary UK experience of dexmedetomidine, a novel agent for postoperative sedation in the intensive care unit. Anaesthesia 1999; 54: 1136-42

403. Ansah OB, Raekallio M, Vainio O: Comparison of three doses of dexmedetomidine with medetomidine in cats following intramuscular administration. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 1998; 21: 380-7

404. Asai T, Mapleson WW, Power I: Interactive effect of morphine and dexmedetomidine on gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit in the rat. Br J Anaesth 1998; 80: 63-7

405. Ganjoo P, Farber NE, Hudetz A, Smith JJ, Samso E, Kampine JP, Schmeling WT: In vivo effects of dexmedetomidine on laser-Doppler flow and pial arteriolar diameter. Anesthesiology 1998; 88: 429-39

406. Guo TZ, Reid K, Davies MF, Nacif-Coelho C, Rabin BC, Gonzalez F, Maze M: Chronic desipramine treatment desensitizes the rat to anesthetic and antinociceptive effects of the alpha2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine. Anesthesiology 1998; 88: 1634-42

407. Kontinen VK, Paananen S, Kalso E: The effects of the alpha2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, in the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathic pain in rats. Anesth Analg 1998; 86: 355-60

408. Newman-Tancredi A, Nicolas JP, Audinot V, Gavaudan S, Verriele L, Touzard M, Chaput C, Richard N, Millan MJ: Actions of alpha2 adrenoceptor ligands at alpha2A and 5-HT1A receptors: the antagonist, atipamezole, and the agonist, dexmedetomidine, are highly selective for alpha2A adrenoceptors. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1998; 358: 197-206

409. Pagel PS, Hettrick DA, Kersten JR, Warltier DC: Dexmedetomidine produces similar alterations in the determinants of left ventricular afterload in conscious dogs before and after the development of pacing-induced cardiomyopathy. Anesthesiology 1998; 89: 741-8

410. Pagel PS, Proctor LT, Devcic A, Hettrick DA, Kersten JR, Tessmer JP, Farber NE, Schmeling WT, Warltier DC: A novel alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist attenuates the early, but preserves the late cardiovascular effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine in conscious dogs. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1998; 12: 429-34

411. Poree LR, Guo TZ, Kingery WS, Maze M: The analgesic potency of dexmedetomidine is enhanced after nerve injury: a possible role for peripheral alpha2-adrenoceptors. Anesth Analg 1998; 87: 941-8

412. Scheinin H, Aantaa R, Anttila M, Hakola P, Helminen A, Karhuvaara S: Reversal of the sedative and sympatholytic effects of dexmedetomidine with a specific alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole: a pharmacodynamic and kinetic study in healthy volunteers. Anesthesiology 1998; 89: 574-84

413. Xu H, Aibiki M, Seki K, Ogura S, Ogli K: Effects of dexmedetomidine, an alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, on renal sympathetic nerve activity, blood pressure, heart rate and central venous pressure in urethane-anesthetized rabbits. J Auton Nerv Syst 1998; 71: 48-54

414. Aantaa R, Jaakola ML, Kallio A, Kanto J: Reduction of the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane by dexmedetomidine. Anesthesiology 1997; 86: 1055-60

415. Ala-Kokko TI, Pienimaki P, Lampela E, Hollmen AI, Pelkonen O, Vahakangas K: Transfer of clonidine and dexmedetomidine across the isolated perfused human placenta. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41: 313-9

416. Asano Y, Koehler RC, Kawaguchi T, McPherson RW: Pial arteriolar constriction to alpha 2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine in the rat. Am J Physiol 1997; 272: H2547-56

417. Bol C, Danhof M, Stanski DR, Mandema JW: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic characterization of the cardiovascular, hypnotic, EEG and ventilatory responses to dexmedetomidine in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 283: 1051-8

418. Bol CJ, AP IJ, Danhof M, Mandema JW: Determination of dexmedetomidine in rat plasma by a sensitive [3H]clonidine radioreceptor assay. J Pharm Sci 1997; 86: 822-6

419. Dowlatshahi P, Yaksh TL: Differential effects of two intraventricularly injected alpha 2 agonists, ST-91 and dexmedetomidine, on electroencephalogram, feeding, and electromyogram. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 133-8

420. Farber NE, Poterack KA, Schmeling WT: Dexmedetomidine and halothane produce similar alterations in electroencephalographic and electromyographic activity in cats. Brain Res 1997; 774: 131-41

421. Hui YH, Marsh KC, Menacherry S: Analytical method development for the simultaneous quantitation of dexmedetomidine and three potential metabolites in plasma. J Chromatogr A 1997; 762: 281-91

422. Hunter JC, Fontana DJ, Hedley LR, Jasper JR, Lewis R, Link RE, Secchi R, Sutton J, Eglen RM: Assessment of the role of alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes in the antinociceptive, sedative and hypothermic action of dexmedetomidine in transgenic mice. Br J Pharmacol 1997; 122: 1339-44

423. Jalonen J, Hynynen M, Kuitunen A, Heikkila H, Perttila J, Salmenpera M, Valtonen M, Aantaa R, Kallio A: Dexmedetomidine as an anesthetic adjunct in coronary artery bypass grafting. Anesthesiology 1997; 86: 331-45

424. Kuhmonen J, Pokorny J, Miettinen R, Haapalinna A, Jolkkonen J, Riekkinen P, Sr., Sivenius J: Neuroprotective effects of dexmedetomidine in the gerbil hippocampus after transient global ischemia. Anesthesiology 1997; 87: 371-7

425. Lawrence CJ, De Lange S: Effects of a single pre-operative dexmedetomidine dose on isoflurane requirements and peri-operative haemodynamic stability. Anaesthesia 1997; 52: 736-44

426. Lawrence CJ, Prinzen FW, de Lange S: Hemodynamic and coronary vascular effects of dexmedetomidine in the anesthetized goat. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41: 830-6

427. McPherson RW, Koehler RC, Kirsch JR, Traystman RJ: Intraventricular dexmedetomidine decreases cerebral blood flow during normoxia and hypoxia in dogs. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 139-47

428. Reid K, Guo TZ, Davies MF, Maze M: Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, restores the hypnotic response in rats made tolerant to the alpha-2 adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 283: 993-9

429. Reid K, Hayashi Y, Hsu J, Maguire PA, Rabin BC, Guo TZ, Maze M: Chronic treatment with dexmedetomidine desensitizes alpha 2-adrenergic signal transduction. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1997; 57: 63-71

430. Riihioja P, Jaatinen P, Oksanen H, Haapalinna A, Heinonen E, Hervonen A: Dexmedetomidine alleviates ethanol withdrawal symptoms in the rat. Alcohol 1997; 14: 537-44

431. Riihioja P, Jaatinen P, Oksanen H, Haapalinna A, Heinonen E, Hervonen A: Dexmedetomidine, diazepam, and propranolol in the treatment of ethanol withdrawal symptoms in the rat. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1997; 21: 804-8

432. Rodrigues AD, Roberts EM: The in vitro interaction of dexmedetomidine with human liver microsomal cytochrome P4502D6 (CYP2D6). Drug Metab Dispos 1997; 25: 651-5

433. Roekaerts PM, Lawrence CJ, Prinzen FW, de Lange S: Alleviation of the peripheral hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine by the calcium channel blocker isradipine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1997; 41: 364-70

434. Rouch AJ, Kudo LH, Hebert C: Dexmedetomidine inhibits osmotic water permeability in the rat cortical collecting duct. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 281: 62-9

435. Ruotsalainen S, Haapalinna A, Riekkinen PJ, Sr., Sirvio J: Dexmedetomidine reduces response tendency, but not accuracy of rats in attention and short-term memory tasks. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1997; 56: 31-40

436. Sallinen J, Link RE, Haapalinna A, Viitamaa T, Kulatunga M, Sjoholm B, Macdonald E, Pelto-Huikko M, Leino T, Barsh GS, Kobilka BK, Scheinin M: Genetic alteration of alpha 2C-adrenoceptor expression in mice: influence on locomotor, hypothermic, and neurochemical effects of dexmedetomidine, a subtype-nonselective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist. Mol Pharmacol 1997; 51: 36-46

437. Taittonen MT, Kirvela OA, Aantaa R, Kanto JH: Effect of clonidine and dexmedetomidine premedication on perioperative oxygen consumption and haemodynamic state. Br J Anaesth 1997; 78: 400-6

438. Talke P, Richardson CA, Scheinin M, Fisher DM: Postoperative pharmacokinetics and sympatholytic effects of dexmedetomidine. Anesth Analg 1997; 85: 1136-42

439. Talke P, Tayefeh F, Sessler DI, Jeffrey R, Noursalehi M, Richardson C: Dexmedetomidine does not alter the sweating threshold, but comparably and linearly decreases the vasoconstriction and shivering thresholds. Anesthesiology 1997; 87: 835-41

440. Talke P, Tong C, Lee HW, Caldwell J, Eisenach JC, Richardson CA: Effect of dexmedetomidine on lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure in humans. Anesth Analg 1997; 85: 358-64

441. Tonner PH, Scholz J, Koch C, Schulte am Esch J: The anesthetic effect of dexmedetomidine does not adhere to the Meyer-Overton rule but is reversed by hydrostatic pressure. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 618-22

442. Wittner M, Sivenius J, Koistinaho J: Alpha2-adrenoreceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, alters acute gene expression after global ischemia in gerbils. Neurosci Lett 1997; 232: 75-8

443. Guo TZ, Jiang JY, Buttermann AE, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine injection into the locus ceruleus produces antinociception. Anesthesiology 1996; 84: 873-81

444. Hayashi Y, Guo TZ, Maze M: Hypnotic and analgesic effects of the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine in morphine-tolerant rats. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 606-10

445. Horvath G, Morvay Z, Kovacs M, Szilagyi A, Szikszay M: Drugs acting on calcium channels modulate the diuretic and micturition effects of dexmedetomidine in rats. Life Sci 1996; 59: 1247-57

446. Idanpaan-Heikkila JJ, Rauhala P, Mannisto PT: Neuroendocrine effects of dexmedetomidine: evidence of cross-tolerance between a mu-opioid agonist and an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist in growth hormone secretion of the male rat. Pharmacol Toxicol 1996; 78: 136-42

447. Kim HK, Zornow MH, Strnat MA, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine does not attenuate increases in excitatory amino acids after transient global ischemia in the rabbit. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 1996; 8: 230-6

448. Lawrence CJ, Prinzen FW, de Lange S: The effect of dexmedetomidine on nutrient organ blood flow. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 1160-5

449. Lawrence CJ, Prinzen FW, de Lange S: The effect of dexmedetomidine on the balance of myocardial energy requirement and oxygen supply and demand. Anesth Analg 1996; 82: 544-50

450. Mizobe T, Maghsoudi K, Sitwala K, Tianzhi G, Ou J, Maze M: Antisense technology reveals the alpha2A adrenoceptor to be the subtype mediating the hypnotic response to the highly selective agonist, dexmedetomidine, in the locus coeruleus of the rat. J Clin Invest 1996; 98: 1076-80

451. Oku S, Benson KT, Hirakawa M, Goto H: Renal sympathetic nerve activity after dexmedetomidine in nerve-intact and baroreceptor-denervated rabbits. Anesth Analg 1996; 83: 477-81

452. Rabin BC, Guo TZ, Gregg K, Maze M: Role of serotonergic neurotransmission in the hypnotic response to dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist. Eur J Pharmacol 1996; 306: 51-9

453. Rabin BC, Reid K, Guo TZ, Gustafsson E, Zhang C, Maze M: Sympatholytic and minimum anesthetic concentration-sparing responses are preserved in rats rendered tolerant to the hypnotic and analgesic action of dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist. Anesthesiology 1996; 85: 565-73

454. Roekaerts PM, Prinzen FW, De Lange S: Beneficial effects of dexmedetomidine on ischaemic myocardium of anaesthetized dogs. Br J Anaesth 1996; 77: 427-9

455. Roekaerts PM, Prinzen FW, de Lange S: Coronary vascular effects of dexmedetomidine during reactive hyperemia in the anesthetized dog. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1996; 10: 619-26

456. Savola MK, Savola JM: [3H]dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, detects a novel imidazole binding site in adult rat spinal cord. Eur J Pharmacol 1996; 306: 315-23

457. Talke P, Bickler PE: Effects of dexmedetomidine on hypoxia-evoked glutamate release and glutamate receptor activity in hippocampal slices. Anesthesiology 1996; 85: 551-7

458. Bouaziz H, Hewitt C, Eisenach JC: Subarachnoid neostigmine potentiation of alpha 2-adrenergic agonist analgesia. Dexmedetomidine versus Clonidine. Reg Anesth 1995; 20: 121-7

459. Chiu TH, Chen MJ, Yang YR, Yang JJ, Tang FI: Action of dexmedetomidine on rat locus coeruleus neurones: intracellular recording in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 1995; 285: 261-8

460. Halonen T, Kotti T, Tuunanen J, Toppinen A, Miettinen R, Riekkinen PJ: Alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, dexmedetomidine, protects against kainic acid-induced convulsions and neuronal damage. Brain Res 1995; 693: 217-24

461. Idanpaan-Heikkila JJ, Bjorn M, Seppala T: The effects of ethanol in combination with the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine and the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole on brain monoamine metabolites and motor performance of mice. Eur J Pharmacol 1995; 292: 191-9

462. Ishiyama T, Dohi S, Iida H, Watanabe Y, Shimonaka H: Mechanisms of dexmedetomidine-induced cerebrovascular effects in canine in vivo experiments. Anesth Analg 1995; 81: 1208-15

463. Jaatinen P, Riihioja P, Haapalinna A, Heinonen E, Kiianmaa K, Hervonen A: Prevention of ethanol-induced sympathetic overactivity and degeneration by dexmedetomidine. Alcohol 1995; 12: 439-46

464. Jalonen J, Halkola L, Kuttila K, Perttila J, Rajalin A, Savunen T, Scheinin M, Valtonen M: Effects of dexmedetomidine on coronary hemodynamics and myocardial oxygen balance. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1995; 9: 519-24

465. Kamibayashi T, Hayashi Y, Mammoto T, Yamatodani A, Sumikawa K, Yoshiya I: Role of the vagus nerve in the antidysrhythmic effect of dexmedetomidine on halothane/epinephrine dysrhythmias in dogs. Anesthesiology 1995; 83: 992-9

466. Kamibayashi T, Mammoto T, Hayashi Y, Yamatodani A, Takada K, Sasaki S, Yoshiya I: Further characterization of the receptor mechanism involved in the antidysrhythmic effect of dexmedetomidine on halothane/epinephrine dysrhythmias in dogs. Anesthesiology 1995; 83: 1082-9

467. Karlsson BR, Loberg EM, Steen PA: Dexmedetomidine, a potent alpha 2-agonist, does not affect neuronal damage following severe forebrain ischaemia in the rat. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1995; 12: 281-5

468. Kersten JR, Pagel PS, Hettrick DA, Warltier DC: Dexmedetomidine partially attenuates the sympathetically mediated systemic and coronary hemodynamic effects of cocaine. Anesth Analg 1995; 80: 114-21

469. Levanen J, Makela ML, Scheinin H: Dexmedetomidine premedication attenuates ketamine-induced cardiostimulatory effects and postanesthetic delirium. Anesthesiology 1995; 82: 1117-25

470. Seidel WF, Maze M, Dement WC, Edgar DM: Alpha-2 adrenergic modulation of sleep: time-of-day-dependent pharmacodynamic profiles of dexmedetomidine and clonidine in the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1995; 275: 263-73

471. Talke P, Li J, Jain U, Leung J, Drasner K, Hollenberg M, Mangano DT: Effects of perioperative dexmedetomidine infusion in patients undergoing vascular surgery. The Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. Anesthesiology 1995; 82: 620-33

472. Valtonen P, Haapalinna A, Riekkinen P, Sr., Halonen T: Effect of alpha 2-adrenergic drugs dexmedetomidine and atipamezole on extracellular amino acid levels in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 1995; 285: 239-46

473. Weinger MB, Partridge BL, Henry AF: Dexmedetomidine does not modify the neuromuscular blocking action of vecuronium in the anaesthetized rat. Br J Anaesth 1995; 74: 455-7

474. Buhrer M, Mappes A, Lauber R, Stanski DR, Maitre PO: Dexmedetomidine decreases thiopental dose requirement and alters distribution pharmacokinetics. Anesthesiology 1994; 80: 1216-27

475. Devcic A, Schmeling WT, Kampine JP, Warltier DC: Oral dexmedetomidine preserves baroreceptor function and decreases anesthetic requirements of halothane-anesthetized dogs. Anesthesiology 1994; 81: 419-30

476. Eisenach JC, Shafer SL, Bucklin BA, Jackson C, Kallio A: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intraspinal dexmedetomidine in sheep. Anesthesiology 1994; 80: 1349-59

477. Erkola O, Korttila K, Aho M, Haasio J, Aantaa R, Kallio A: Comparison of intramuscular dexmedetomidine and midazolam premedication for elective abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 1994; 79: 646-53

478. Horvath G, Kovacs M, Szikszay M, Benedek G: Mydriatic and antinociceptive effects of intrathecal dexmedetomidine in conscious rats. Eur J Pharmacol 1994; 253: 61-6

479. Horvath G, Morvay Z, Kovacs M, Szikszay M, Benedek G: An ultrasonographic method for the evaluation of dexmedetomidine on micturition in intact rats. J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 1994; 32: 215-8

480. Idanpaan-Heikkila JJ, Kalso EA, Seppala T: Antinociceptive actions of dexmedetomidine and the kappa-opioid agonist U-50,488H against noxious thermal, mechanical and inflammatory stimuli. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1994; 271: 1306-13

481. Jaakola ML: Dexmedetomidine premedication before intravenous regional anesthesia in minor outpatient hand surgery. J Clin Anesth 1994; 6: 204-11

482. Jaakola ML, Kanto J, Scheinin H, Kallio A: Intramuscular dexmedetomidine premedication--an alternative to midazolam-fentanyl-combination in elective hysterectomy? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1994; 38: 238-43

483. Kivisto KT, Kallio A, Neuvonen PJ: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of transdermal dexmedetomidine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1994; 46: 345-9

484. Mirski MA, Rossell LA, McPherson RW, Traystman RJ: Dexmedetomidine decreases seizure threshold in a rat model of experimental generalized epilepsy. Anesthesiology 1994; 81: 1422-8

485. Nacif-Coelho C, Correa-Sales C, Chang LL, Maze M: Perturbation of ion channel conductance alters the hypnotic response to the alpha 2-adrenergic agonist dexmedetomidine in the locus coeruleus of the rat. Anesthesiology 1994; 81: 1527-34

486. Reid K, Hayashi Y, Guo TZ, Correa-Sales C, Nacif-Coelho C, Maze M: Chronic administration of an alpha 2 adrenergic agonist desensitizes rats to the anesthetic effects of dexmedetomidine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994; 47: 171-5

487. Sabbe MB, Penning JP, Ozaki GT, Yaksh TL: Spinal and systemic action of the alpha 2 receptor agonist dexmedetomidine in dogs. Antinociception and carbon dioxide response. Anesthesiology 1994; 80: 1057-72

488. Salmenpera MT, Szlam F, Hug CC, Jr.: Anesthetic and hemodynamic interactions of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl in dogs. Anesthesiology 1994; 80: 837-46

489. Vainio OM, Bloor BC: Relation between body temperature and dexmedetomidine-induced minimum alveolar concentration and respiratory changes in isoflurane-anesthetized miniature swine. Am J Vet Res 1994; 55: 1000-6

490. Virkkila M, Ali-Melkkila T, Kanto J, Turunen J, Scheinin H: Dexmedetomidine as intramuscular premedication for day-case cataract surgery. A comparative study of dexmedetomidine, midazolam and placebo. Anaesthesia 1994; 49: 853-8

491. Aho M, Erkola O, Kallio A, Scheinin H, Korttila K: Comparison of dexmedetomidine and midazolam sedation and antagonism of dexmedetomidine with atipamezole. J Clin Anesth 1993; 5: 194-203

492. Bari F, Horvath G, Benedek G: Dexmedetomidine-induced decrease in cerebral blood flow is attenuated by verapamil in rats: a laser Doppler study. Can J Anaesth 1993; 40: 748-54

493. Butelman ER, Woods JH: Effects of clonidine, dexmedetomidine and xylazine on thermal antinociception in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1993; 264: 762-9

494. Dyck JB, Maze M, Haack C, Azarnoff DL, Vuorilehto L, Shafer SL: Computer-controlled infusion of intravenous dexmedetomidine hydrochloride in adult human volunteers. Anesthesiology 1993; 78: 821-8

495. Dyck JB, Maze M, Haack C, Vuorilehto L, Shafer SL: The pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic effects of intravenous and intramuscular dexmedetomidine hydrochloride in adult human volunteers. Anesthesiology 1993; 78: 813-20

496. Flacke WE, Flacke JW, Bloor BC, McIntee DF, Sagan M: Effects of dexmedetomidine on systemic and coronary hemodynamics in the anesthetized dog. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1993; 7: 41-9

497. Jorm CM, Stamford JA: Actions of the hypnotic anaesthetic, dexmedetomidine, on noradrenaline release and cell firing in rat locus coeruleus slices. Br J Anaesth 1993; 71: 447-9

498. Kersten J, Pagel PS, Tessmer JP, Roerig DL, Schmeling WT, Warltier DC: Dexmedetomidine alters the hemodynamic effects of desflurane and isoflurane in chronically instrumented dogs. Anesthesiology 1993; 79: 1022-32

499. MacDonald E, Vartiainen J, Jasberg K, Vuorilehto L, Salonen JS, Urtti A: Systemic absorption and systemic effects of ocularly administered dexmedetomidine in rabbits. Curr Eye Res 1993; 12: 451-60

500. Maier C, Steinberg GK, Sun GH, Zhi GT, Maze M: Neuroprotection by the alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonist dexmedetomidine in a focal model of cerebral ischemia. Anesthesiology 1993; 79: 306-12

501. Matsumoto M, Zornow MH, Rabin BC, Maze M: The alpha 2 adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, selectively attenuates ischemia-induced increases in striatal norepinephrine concentrations. Brain Res 1993; 627: 325-9

502. Puke MJ, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z: The differential effects of morphine and the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine and dexmedetomidine on the prevention and treatment of experimental neuropathic pain. Anesth Analg 1993; 77: 104-9

503. Salonen M, Maze M: Implementation of a radioreceptor assay for dexmedetomidine. Pharmacol Toxicol 1993; 73: 254-6

504. Scheinin H, Jaakola ML, Sjovall S, Ali-Melkkila T, Kaukinen S, Turunen J, Kanto J: Intramuscular dexmedetomidine as premedication for general anesthesia. A comparative multicenter study. Anesthesiology 1993; 78: 1065-75

505. Takano Y, Yaksh TL: Chronic spinal infusion of dexmedetomidine, ST-91 and clonidine: spinal alpha 2 adrenoceptor subtypes and intrinsic activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1993; 264: 327-35

506. Virkkila M, Ali-Melkkila T, Kanto J, Turunen J, Scheinin H: Dexmedetomidine as intramuscular premedication in outpatient cataract surgery. A placebo-controlled dose-ranging study. Anaesthesia 1993; 48: 482-7

507. Zornow MH, Maze M, Dyck JB, Shafer SL: Dexmedetomidine decreases cerebral blood flow velocity in humans. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 1993; 13: 350-3

508. Aho M, Erkola O, Kallio A, Scheinin H, Korttila K: Dexmedetomidine infusion for maintenance of anesthesia in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 1992; 75: 940-6

509. Aho M, Scheinin M, Lehtinen AM, Erkola O, Vuorinen J, Korttila K: Intramuscularly administered dexmedetomidine attenuates hemodynamic and stress hormone responses to gynecologic laparoscopy. Anesth Analg 1992; 75: 932-9

510. Belleville JP, Ward DS, Bloor BC, Maze M: Effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine in humans. I. Sedation, ventilation, and metabolic rate. Anesthesiology 1992; 77: 1125-33

511. Bloor BC, Frankland M, Alper G, Raybould D, Weitz J, Shurtliff M: Hemodynamic and sedative effects of dexmedetomidine in dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1992; 263: 690-7

512. Bloor BC, Ward DS, Belleville JP, Maze M: Effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine in humans. II. Hemodynamic changes. Anesthesiology 1992; 77: 1134-42

513. Correa-Sales C, Rabin BC, Maze M: A hypnotic response to dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2 agonist, is mediated in the locus coeruleus in rats. Anesthesiology 1992; 76: 948-52

514. Coughlan MG, Lee JG, Bosnjak ZJ, Schmeling WT, Kampine JP, Warltier DC: Direct coronary and cerebral vascular responses to dexmedetomidine. Significance of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis. Anesthesiology 1992; 77: 998-1006

515. Flacke WE, Flacke JW, Blow KD, McIntee DF, Bloor BC: Effect of dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, in the isolated heart. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 1992; 6: 418-23

516. Gregoretti S, Henderson T, Parks DA, Gelman S: Haemodynamic changes and oxygen uptake during crossclamping of the thoracic aorta in dexmedetomidine pretreated dogs. Can J Anaesth 1992; 39: 731-41

517. Horvath G, Szikszay M, Benedek G: Calcium channels are involved in the hypnotic-anesthetic action of dexmedetomidine in rats. Anesth Analg 1992; 74: 884-8

518. Horvath G, Szikszay M, Rubicsek G, Benedek G: An isobolographic analysis of the hypnotic effects of combinations of dexmedetomidine with fentanyl or diazepam in rats. Life Sci 1992; 50: PL215-20

519. Jaakola ML, Ali-Melkkila T, Kanto J, Kallio A, Scheinin H, Scheinin M: Dexmedetomidine reduces intraocular pressure, intubation responses and anaesthetic requirements in patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Br J Anaesth 1992; 68: 570-5

520. Nguyen D, Abdul-Rasool I, Ward D, Hsieh J, Kobayashi D, Hadlock S, Singer F, Bloor B: Ventilatory effects of dexmedetomidine, atipamezole, and isoflurane in dogs. Anesthesiology 1992; 76: 573-9

521. Peden CJ, Prys-Roberts C: Dexmedetomidine--a powerful new adjunct to anaesthesia? Br J Anaesth 1992; 68: 123-5

522. Proctor LT, Schmeling WT, Warltier DC: Premedication with oral dexmedetomidine alters hemodynamic actions of intravenous anesthetic agents in chronically instrumented dogs. Anesthesiology 1992; 77: 554-62

523. Salonen M, Onaivi ES, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine synergism with midazolam in the elevated plus-maze test in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1992; 108: 229-34

524. Scheinin B, Lindgren L, Randell T, Scheinin H, Scheinin M: Dexmedetomidine attenuates sympathoadrenal responses to tracheal intubation and reduces the need for thiopentone and peroperative fentanyl. Br J Anaesth 1992; 68: 126-31

525. Scheinin H, Karhuvaara S, Olkkola KT, Kallio A, Anttila M, Vuorilehto L, Scheinin M: Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of intramuscular dexmedetomidine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1992; 52: 537-46

526. Sirvio J, Riekkinen P, Jr., Ekonsalo T, Lammintausta R, Riekkinen PJ: The effects of dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2 agonist, on learning and memory, assessed using passive avoidance and water maze tasks in rats. Neuropharmacology 1992; 31: 163-8

527. Sullivan AF, Kalso EA, McQuay HJ, Dickenson AH: The antinociceptive actions of dexmedetomidine on dorsal horn neuronal responses in the anaesthetized rat. Eur J Pharmacol 1992; 215: 127-33

528. Vartiainen J, MacDonald E, Urtti A, Rouhiainen H, Virtanen R: Dexmedetomidine-induced ocular hypotension in rabbits with normal or elevated intraocular pressures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1992; 33: 2019-23

529. Zhao Z, Code WE, Hertz L: Dexmedetomidine, a potent and highly specific alpha 2 agonist, evokes cytosolic calcium surge in astrocytes but not in neurons. Neuropharmacology 1992; 31: 1077-9

530. Zornow MH, Scheller MS, Sheehan PB, Strnat MA, Matsumoto M: Intracranial pressure effects of dexmedetomidine in rabbits. Anesth Analg 1992; 75: 232-7

531. Aantaa R: Assessment of the sedative effects of dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, with analysis of saccadic eye movements. Pharmacol Toxicol 1991; 68: 394-8

532. Aantaa R, Jaakola ML, Kallio A, Kanto J, Scheinin M, Vuorinen J: A comparison of dexmedetomidine, and alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, and midazolam as i.m. premedication for minor gynaecological surgery. Br J Anaesth 1991; 67: 402-9

533. Aantaa R, Kanto J, Scheinin M: Intramuscular dexmedetomidine, a novel alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, as premedication for minor gynaecological surgery. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1991; 35: 283-8

534. Aho M, Lehtinen AM, Erkola O, Kallio A, Korttila K: The effect of intravenously administered dexmedetomidine on perioperative hemodynamics and isoflurane requirements in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Anesthesiology 1991; 74: 997-1002

535. Aho MS, Erkola OA, Scheinin H, Lehtinen AM, Korttila KT: Effect of intravenously administered dexmedetomidine on pain after laparoscopic tubal ligation. Anesth Analg 1991; 73: 112-8

536. Eisenach JC: Mechanism of antiarrhythmic effect of dexmedetomidine on epinephrine-induced arrhythmias. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: 1116-7

537. Fisher B, Zornow MH, Yaksh TL, Peterson BM: Antinociceptive properties of intrathecal dexmedetomidine in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 1991; 192: 221-5

538. Guo TZ, Tinklenberg J, Oliker R, Maze M: Central alpha 1-adrenoceptor stimulation functionally antagonizes the hypnotic response to dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: 252-6

539. Hayashi Y, Sumikawa K, Maze M, Yamatodani A, Kamibayashi T, Kuro M, Yoshiya I: Dexmedetomidine prevents epinephrine-induced arrhythmias through stimulation of central alpha 2 adrenoceptors in halothane-anesthetized dogs. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: 113-7

540. Hoffman WE, Kochs E, Werner C, Thomas C, Albrecht RF: Dexmedetomidine improves neurologic outcome from incomplete ischemia in the rat. Reversal by the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist atipamezole. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: 328-32

541. Horvath G, Kovacs M, Szikszay M, Benedek G: Drugs acting at calcium channels can influence the hypnotic-anesthetic effect of dexmedetomidine. Acta Biochim Biophys Hung 1991; 26: 75-81

542. Jaakola ML, Salonen M, Lehtinen R, Scheinin H: The analgesic action of dexmedetomidine--a novel alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist--in healthy volunteers. Pain 1991; 46: 281-5

543. Kalso EA, Poyhia R, Rosenberg PH: Spinal antinociception by dexmedetomidine, a highly selective alpha 2-adrenergic agonist. Pharmacol Toxicol 1991; 68: 140-3

544. Kharasch ED, Hill HF, Eddy AC: Influence of dexmedetomidine and clonidine on human liver microsomal alfentanil metabolism. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: 520-4

545. Mattila MJ, Mattila ME, Olkkola KT, Scheinin H: Effect of dexmedetomidine and midazolam on human performance and mood. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1991; 41: 217-23

546. Maze M, Virtanen R, Daunt D, Banks SJ, Stover EP, Feldman D: Effects of dexmedetomidine, a novel imidazole sedative-anesthetic agent, on adrenal steroidogenesis: in vivo and in vitro studies. Anesth Analg 1991; 73: 204-8

547. Proctor LT, Schmeling WT, Roerig D, Kampine JP, Warltier DC: Oral dexmedetomidine attenuates hemodynamic responses during emergence from general anesthesia in chronically instrumented dogs. Anesthesiology 1991; 74: 108-14

548. Savola JM, Virtanen R: Central alpha 2-adrenoceptors are highly stereoselective for dexmedetomidine, the dextro enantiomer of medetomidine. Eur J Pharmacol 1991; 195: 193-9

549. Savola MK, MacIver MB, Doze VA, Kendig JJ, Maze M: The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine increases the apparent potency of the volatile anesthetic isoflurane in rats in vivo and in hippocampal slice in vitro. Brain Res 1991; 548: 23-8

550. Scheller MS, Zornow MH: Are the hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine influenced by the background anesthetic? Anesth Analg 1991; 72: 408-9

551. Schwinn DA, Correa-Sales C, Page SO, Maze M: Functional effects of activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors by dexmedetomidine: in vivo and in vitro studies. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1991; 259: 1147-52

552. Takano Y, Yaksh TL: Relative efficacy of spinal alpha-2 agonists, dexmedetomidine, clonidine and ST-91, determined in vivo by using N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline, an irreversible antagonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1991; 258: 438-46

553. Weitz JD, Foster SD, Waugaman WR, Katz RL, Bloor BC: Anesthetic and hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine during isoflurane anesthesia in a canine model. Nurse Anesth 1991; 2: 19-27

554. Zornow MH: Ventilatory, hemodynamic and sedative effects of the alpha 2 adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine. Neuropharmacology 1991; 30: 1065-71

555. Segal IS, Vickery RG, Walton JK, Doze VA, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine diminishes halothane anesthetic requirements in rats through a postsynaptic alpha 2 adrenergic receptor. Anesthesiology 1988; 69: 818-23

556. Doze V, Chen BX, Li Z, Maze M: Pharmacologic characterization of the receptor mediating the hypnotic action of dexmedetomidine. Acta Vet Scand Suppl 1989; 85: 61-4

557. Doze VA, Chen BX, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine produces a hypnotic-anesthetic action in rats via activation of central alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Anesthesiology 1989; 71: 75-9

558. Kallio A, Scheinin M, Koulu M, Ponkilainen R, Ruskoaho H, Viinamaki O, Scheinin H: Effects of dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, on hemodynamic control mechanisms. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1989; 46: 33-42

559. Weinger MB, Segal IS, Maze M: Dexmedetomidine, acting through central alpha-2 adrenoceptors, prevents opiate-induced muscle rigidity in the rat. Anesthesiology 1989; 71: 242-9

560. Aantaa R, Kanto J, Scheinin M, Kallio A, Scheinin H: Dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, reduces anesthetic requirements for patients undergoing minor gynecologic surgery. Anesthesiology 1990; 73: 230-5

561. Aantaa RE, Kanto JH, Scheinin M, Kallio AM, Scheinin H: Dexmedetomidine premedication for minor gynecologic surgery. Anesth Analg 1990; 70: 407-13

562. Doze VA, Chen BX, Tinklenberg JA, Segal IS, Maze M: Pertussis toxin and 4-aminopyridine differentially affect the hypnotic-anesthetic action of dexmedetomidine and pentobarbital. Anesthesiology 1990; 73: 304-7

563. Flacke JW, Flacke WE, Bloor BC, McIntee DF: Hemodynamic effects of dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, in autonomically denervated dogs. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1990; 16: 616-23

564. Furst SR, Weinger MB: Dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha 2-agonist, does not potentiate the cardiorespiratory depression of alfentanil in the rat. Anesthesiology 1990; 72: 882-8

565. Housmans PR: Effects of dexmedetomidine on contractility, relaxation, and intracellular calcium transients of isolated ventricular myocardium. Anesthesiology 1990; 73: 919-22

566. Karlsson BR, Forsman M, Roald OK, Heier MS, Steen PA: Effect of dexmedetomidine, a selective and potent alpha 2-agonist, on cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption during halothane anesthesia in dogs. Anesth Analg 1990; 71: 125-9

567. Koulu M, Pesonen U, Virtanen R: Chronic dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha 2-agonist, decreases serotonin but not noradrenaline turnover in rat brainstem nuclei. Eur J Pharmacol 1990; 176: 151-7

568. Tarkovacs G, Rakovska A, Romics L, Vizi ES: Presynaptic effect of dexmedetomidine on cholinergic chemical transmission. Acta Physiol Hung 1990; 75 Suppl: 275-6

569. Zornow MH, Fleischer JE, Scheller MS, Nakakimura K, Drummond JC: Dexmedetomidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, decreases cerebral blood flow in the isoflurane-anesthetized dog. Anesth Analg 1990; 70: 624-30